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industrialization of food production

The increasing intensification and capitalization of the production, transport, storage, and retailing of foods, especially of ‘Westernized’ products, associated with agribusiness and ...

food production, industrialization of

food production, industrialization of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... production, industrialization of The increasing intensification and capitalization of the production, transport, storage, and retailing of foods, especially of ‘Westernized’ products, associated with agribusiness and transnational corporations . The Indian broiler industry, for example, has grown from 31 million birds a year in 1981 to 800 million two decades later (M. Gold 2003 ). ‘Very powerful corporations dominate many sectors. Primary producers are locked into tight specifications and contracts. Consumers may benefit from cheaper food but there...

industrialization of food production

industrialization of food production  

The increasing intensification and capitalization of the production, transport, storage, and retailing of foods, especially of ‘Westernized’ products, associated with agribusiness and transnational ...
Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...where industrialization was clearly not responsible for population increase. Until quite recently, explanations for this growth centred on a lowering of death rates, interpreted as the result of a complex interaction of factors. At present it is not clear to what extent the lowering of death rates through improved health was the result of an autonomous decline in the virulence of disease or of increased resistance of human hosts to infection as a result of better food supplies and improved environmental conditions. It may well have been a combination of the...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... has emphasized, during the Victorian period many consumer goods became standardized and cheap, it was not until the dawn of the twentieth century that, thanks to production-line techniques, manufacturers like Henry Ford were able to introduce the distinctive objects of mass society, epitomized by the Model T Ford. Such caveats notwithstanding, the idea of consumerism is valuable as a partial explanation of the industrialization process beginning in the late eighteenth century and accelerating in the nineteenth. It also reflects the fact that late...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,434 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Revolution has drawn extensively on studies of rural industries which grew enormously in the early modern period ( see proto‐industrialization ). Framework knitting is an example of a thriving industry that grew into a modern one. A full study of a rural parish in County Durham, which became industrialized at an exceptionally early period through the exploitation of its coal reserves, is provided by David Levine and Keith Wrightson , The Making of an Industrial Society: Whickham, 1560–1765 ( 1991 ). Some industries failed to expand, however;...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was a form of monopoly return or transfer payment by the community at large to the owners of a scarce resource, with rents rising when the price of food rose, and with the rate of payment for any given piece of land being dependent on inherent natural differences in fertility. The passivity of rent as a form of income, if not its illegitimacy, was underlined. This allowed Ricardo to achieve a startling reversal of what had been one of Smith's most confident assertions: that since landowners received a form of income that rose in the course of economic...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...working hours, a large pool of casual (intermittent) or unemployed labour, and expanding export markets [ see *industrialization, 14 ]. Workers often experienced new labour disciplines together with low wages not as progression but as oppression, both in the new mechanized factory sector and in the old artisan trades, where intensification of work, driven by constant competition from a ‘dishonourable’ sector of sweated outworkers, achieved mass production. The repeal of the Combination Acts in 1824 led not only to a resurgence of trade unionism but also to a...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,055 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...means of subsistence. He was writing at a time when it was evident that baptisms were far exceeding burials in parishes throughout the land, but it was not yet clear that the production of food was also rising. The study of disease attracted scholarly interest in the 19th century, when major advances in the control of certain widespread diseases were made. The outstanding contribution was Charles Creighton , A History of Epidemics in Britain (2 vols, 1894 ). Another aspect of demography that interested researchers at this time was the study of...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...groups of the common people might cluster, and by licensing popular chapels, *coffeehouses , *taverns, and alehouses as a means of controlling both proprietors and attendants [ see *gagging acts ]. Changes in popular custom have not, however, been ascribed only to the intervention of anxious ruling-class reformers. The dwindling of common land due to *enclosure limited the practice of public sports. The growth of towns and the attendant commercialization of leisure activities, as well as the regulation of work-rhythms through *industrialization [14] ,...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of model constitutions, imagined futures and communities, and conceptions of the past or ‘golden age’ of any society or mankind in general. The literary genre, in addition, is usually taken to encompass a spectrum of speculative works including dystopias, or satires upon perfectionist aspirations. Eighteenth-century Britain was by and large a profoundly practical society. There was no shortage of speculation, but this tended to be as much commercial as political, religious, or philosophical. Rapid commercialization, urbanization, and *industrialization...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,259 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the world of social science. The language within which labour history is discussed is important. The appropriate terms, and the reasoning underlying them, change as we move through the various periods of labour's evolution. Labour's experience can be divided into eight periods. The first is the ‘primitive’ stage, during which it is preferable to speak of ‘the labouring people’, for while ‘labour’ in a modern sense comes into existence with industrialization, it is not until the second period, from the late 18th century through the first half of the 19th...

Gustavus Franklin Swift

Gustavus Franklin Swift  

Gustavus Franklin Swift (1839–1903) was the eponymous founder of one of America's largest and best-known meat-processing companies. He is credited with introducing refrigeration to food ...
Household Technology.

Household Technology.  

Industrialization transformed American society, permanently altering the tools and work processes of preindustrial America. New technologies helped change how households fed, clothed, cleaned, and ...
Tupperware

Tupperware  

(1946– )Tupperware food containers have become almost synonymous with everyday life in the kitchens of the Western industrialized world, their sales methods inspiring the proliferation of suburban ...
Home Economics

Home Economics  

In the late nineteenth century, industrialization and urbanization placed the American home in a state of flux. As the production of household items became centered in shops and factories, the ...
automation

automation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The use of automatic machinery and systems, particularly those manufacturing or data‐processing systems which require little or no human intervention in their normal operation. During the 19th ...
Roman agriculture

Roman agriculture  

Reference type:
Overview Page
By modern standards Roman agriculture was technically simple, average yields were low, transport was difficult and costly, and storage was inefficient. This limited urbanization (and hence ...
Slovakia

Slovakia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The poorer part of former Czechoslovakia has been reforming rapidlySlovakia is dominated by the Carpathian Mountains. Three ranges run east to west and cover the northern half of the country. The ...
Algeria

Algeria  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Algeria is now much more peaceful, but its democracy is fragile and still vulnerable to occasional terrorismAlgeria has a narrow coastal plain which is regularly broken by parts of the Atlas range of ...
Croatia

Croatia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Croatia's fierce nationalism sparked the Balkan wars. Now the country is more democratic and the economy has revivedCroatia's eccentric shape encloses a variety of landscapes and climates. The ...

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