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industrialization

Subject: History

The process of change from a basic agrarian economy to an industrialized one. It was first experienced by Britain in the Industrial Revolution and at much the same time in the New England ...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...what would be defined as industrialization had still to occur. But for something like another century, the debate upon the effects of industrialization was carried on in terms coloured by the ruralist lament of Cobbett and the urban concerns of the ‘Condition of England’ novelists. Glossed increasingly with nostalgia, the rural world was counterposed to the squalor and misery of urban life, as in the writings of Flora Thompson, published on the eve of the Second World War. The powerful image of a landscape despoiled by industrialization, intensified by the...

industrialization

industrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
51 words

... The process whereby a local, regional, or national economy becomes more dependent on various primary, secondary, or tertiary industries. Though agriculture and forestry can become industrialized by introducing advanced machinery, science, and technology into its operations, industrialization typically refers to heavy industry and manufacturing (such as oil extraction and...

industrialization

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
339 words

...had surpassed that of Britain. During those 30 years all industrialized nations saw rapid development and expansion in such heavy industries as iron and steel, chemicals, engineering, and shipbuilding. Japan was the first non-European power to become industrialized, which it had done by the end of the 19th century. The former Soviet Union saw industrialization on a massive scale under Stalin. In many less developed countries, industrialization is equated with development, that is modernization, progress, and economic growth, a viewpoint often, though not...

industrialization

industrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
101 words

...industrialization The process of moving resources into the industrial sector . This is common in the early stages of economic development, when resources move out of primary production. Industrialization was the norm in the now advanced countries earlier in their development, and was energetically pursued by many less developed countries and by the former planned economies of the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe. In recent years most of the advanced economies have seen deindustrialization ; this is not really the reverse of...

industrialization

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The development of manufacturing industry from a predominantly agrarian society. Characteristic features of industrialization include the application of scientific methods to solving problems; mechanization and a factory system; the division of labour; the increased geographical/social mobility of the labour force; and capital deepening ( Atack et al. (2005) J. Econ. Hist. 58, 3 ). These are also features of capitalism , and capitalism is not the same thing as industrialization. ‘Industrialization is widely seen as the most important social...

industrialization

industrialization   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
545 words

... The process underlying the transition from primarily agricultural and craft production to machine-driven mass production organized on the factory model. Industrialization contributes to and correlates with a wide range of other economic, social, cultural, and political transformations, and forms an inextricable part of most theories of modernization and modernity . These broader accounts typically reference the experience of western Europe and the United States, which began to industrialize in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,968 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Late industrializers also sometimes differed from early industrializers in the way industrialization was initiated and carried out (and by whom). The notion that late industrializers followed a separate path is especially associated with the Russian-American economic historian, Alexander Gerschenkron . Writing in the 1950s, Gerschenkron argued that, in order to survive in a competitive world market dominated by established industrial powers, latecomers had to develop their industries rapidly and on a large scale (whereas early industrializers could start...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,472 words
Illustration(s):
1

...four important trends in industrialization vis-à-vis environmental management: • The sustainability revolution in the form of a more ecoefficient industry • The shift to consumption as the main cause of environmental damage • The new alliances between industry and the environmental movement on a global basis • The dilemma of industrialization for developing countries By way of providing an overview, Figure 1 summarizes the relationship between industrialization and the planetary life-support system. Industrialization. Figure 1. The Relationship...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...financial markets, and labour markets—were very few in number in the mid-19th century, and these cities saw the beginning of industrialization. However, as key resources like capital, labour, knowledge, and infrastructure began to spread, so did industrialization. Thus by 1947, Ahmedabad, Madras, and Kanpur were also major industrial centres. Reflecting the crucial importance of cheap natural resources in Indian industrialization, nearly half of all factory employment was engaged in cotton and jute textiles. Other important groups included food, tobacco,...

Industrialization.

Industrialization.   Reference library

Walter Licht

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,261 words

...settings persisted. Labor conflict also marked early American industrialization. Journeymen demonstrated against the dilution of craft practices in artisan shops and their subordination as wage laborers. In the new factories, industrial workers protested against the harsh conditions of work. Women especially led and participated in notable strikes in Lowell and Lynn. From the Civil War to 1900. By the Civil War, industrialization had made great strides. While the war was affected by industrialization—accuracy of machine-tooled rifles increased casualties and...

industrialization

industrialization   Reference library

Richard K. Blundel

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,300 words

...industrialization is the historical development that transformed cheesemaking from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large “cheese factories” or creameries. See artisanal . The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking that set it apart from traditional approaches include high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balancing of milk supplies to minimize variability; use of standardized,...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,690 words

... , with its complex of change that extended gradually throughout social and economic life in the nineteenth century, produced diverse effects on women's writing. For all women of the working class, as for women in slavery, industrialization changed the conditions of labor and domestic life, but factors of class, caste, race, and gender ensured that writing as personal expression or as enterprise was reserved largely for privileged persons. Female laborers had limited access to print culture; the writing they produced remains relatively...

industrialization

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The development of industry on a large scale. A stage in the development of the economy and society in a particular country during which manufacturing replaces agriculture, forestry, and mineral extraction as the primary economic activity. See also demographic transition...

industrialization

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...industrialization The process of change from an agrarian to an industrial economy that uses machines to generate energy, manufacture and transport goods, and move people speedily between their dwellings, workplaces, and recreational settings. These processes usually cause environmental destruction and pollution of air, water, and land with the waste products of industrial development. ...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

Irina AERVITZ

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...to become an industrialized country and another thirty or forty years to become a modernized country. China is now on the path to those two goals. Many analysts are calling for sustainable industrialization of China, which involves balanced economic and social development, better regional integration, and more attention to the environment. Irina AERVITZ Further Reading Dutta, M. (2006). China’s industrial revolution and economic presence . Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. Feuerwerker, A. (1958). China ’ s early industrialization: Sheng...

proto‐industrialization

proto‐industrialization   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
175 words

...in the industrialization process. See D. C. Coleman , ‘Proto‐Industrialisation: A Concept Too Many?’, Economic History Review , 2nd ser., 36/3 (1983) , R. A. Houston and K. D. M. Snell , ‘ Proto‐Industrialization? ’, Historical Journal , 27 (1984) , Pat Hudson , ‘ Proto‐Industrialization: The Case of the West Riding Textile Industry ’, History Workshop , 12 (1981) , and Michael Zell , Industry in the Countryside: Wealden Society in the Sixteenth Century (1994). For the European context, see Sheilagh Ogilvie (ed.), Proto‐Industrialization in...

de-industrialization

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A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
54 words

...industrialization A substantial fall in the importance of the manufacturing sector in the economy of an industrialized nation as it becomes uncompetitive with its neighbours. This may result from bad industrial relations, poor management, inadequate investment in capital goods, or short-sighted government economic policies. In many cases each of these factors contributes to de-industrialization...

proto-industrialization

proto-industrialization   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
79 words

...industrialization . A concept advanced by F. F. Mendels argued that the origins of the Industrial Revolution must be sought in rural industries which produced goods for external markets. The success of these industries provided economic opportunities for earlier marriages and therefore more children, and encouraged the rise of commercial agriculture, two necessary conditions for rapid industrial growth. Critics have pointed to the eventual failure of some flourishing rural industries and to the role of towns in the industrialization...

de‐industrialization

de‐industrialization   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
142 words

...industrialization Economic historians have pointed out that those parts of Britain which first underwent an industrial revolution ( see industrial history ) had experienced a long period of growth prior to the spectacular advances of the late 18th and 19th centuries ( see proto‐industrialization ). However, the process of continuous development was not inevitable. Some parts of Britain which had industries in the Middle Ages and/or the 16th and 17th centuries comparable to those which became heavily industrialized not only failed to develop but lost their...

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