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implied reader

Subject: Literature

In Iser's phenomenological theory of reader-response, a hypothetical ‘role’ or ‘model’ of someone assumed by the author to share the knowledge necessary in order to fully understand the ...

implied reader

implied reader   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... reader A term used by Wolfgang Iser and some other theorists of reader-response criticism to denote the hypothetical figure of the reader to whom a given work is designed to address itself. Any text may be said to presuppose an ‘ideal’ reader who has the particular attitudes (moral, cultural, etc.) appropriate to that text in order for it to achieve its full effect. This implied reader is to be distinguished from actual readers, who may be unable or unwilling to occupy the position of the implied reader: thus, most religious poetry presupposes a...

implied reader

implied reader   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
128 words

... reader In Iser’s phenomenological theory of reader -response, a hypothetical ‘ role ’ or ‘ model ’ of someone assumed by the author to share the knowledge necessary in order to fully understand the text , as distinct from any actual readers . The difference between an implied reader and an actual reader is likely to be most apparent in reading works from a period when conventional values were very different. The implied reader is embodied in the way in which text structures responses, in the form of a network of schemata , patterns, ...

implied reader

implied reader   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... reader Wolfgang Iser 's concept for the reader a literary work appears to be written for, or seems to invite (as opposed to the actual reader of the work). The implied reader is assumed to be both sympathetic and receptive to the text's strategies. By the same token, the implied reader—in contrast to the actual reader—has no ideological ‘baggage’ that might interfere with the text's schemes. The concept clearly owes a debt to Wayne Booth 's prior concept of the implied author and can be usefully compared to Stanley Fish 's later notion of the ...

implied reader

implied reader   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... reader Wolfgang Iser ’s concept for the reader a literary work appears to be written for, or seems to invite (as opposed to the actual reader of the work). The implied reader is assumed to be both sympathetic and receptive to the text’s strategies. By the same token, the implied reader—in contrast to the actual reader—has no ideological ‘baggage’ that might interfere with the text’s schemes. The concept clearly owes a debt to Wayne Booth ’s prior concept of the implied author and can be usefully compared to Stanley Fish ’s later notion of the ...

implied reader

implied reader  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
In Iser's phenomenological theory of reader-response, a hypothetical ‘role’ or ‘model’ of someone assumed by the author to share the knowledge necessary in order to fully understand the text, as ...
20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

Leslie Howsam

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,084 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...them to readers at a manageable rate; and various publishers circumvented the high cost of a complete book by making it available to readers on a week-by-week or monthly basis. Bible and tract societies saw social utility in collecting penny subscriptions until a book was paid for, and Dickens’s first publishers, *Chapman & Hall , discovered the benefits of selling books in *numbers , or parts. They could always be collected up and repackaged as a new edition—or various editions—after the author had finished the tale and the first cohort of readers had...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...could conceivably refer to some of Shakespeare’s sonnets, but the issue is clouded by the existence of another sonneteering W.S., William Smith , who had published a collection of his own in 1596 ). The title page of the 1609 quarto is dominated by Shakespeare’s surname, and implies that the sonnets of this by-now celebrated dramatist and narrative poet have long been eagerly desired by the reading public: it offers ‘ Shake-Speares Sonnets . Never before Imprinted’. Although the subsequent history of the Sonnets suggests that this book failed at first to...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...emerged to guide readers in choosing books. The relocation of literary critics to academia in the 1950s and 1960s reduced the role of the generalist ‘man of letters’. Yet, the more educated readers leaving the nation’s burgeoning universities expanded the audience for the purveyors of expertise in the * New York Review of Books (founded in 1963 ) and other specialized journals. The creation of *amazon.com in 1995 , which inaugurated large-scale Internet retailing, seemed to transfer authority from the critic to the ordinary reader. Despite the loss...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...power turn out to be that ‘of a disenchanter—and a disenchanter the most profound’? In the third of his Letters to a Young Man , De Quincey develops a comparison between a literature of knowledge and a literature of power, which is in broad terms analogous to the opposition he implied between the tree of knowledge and the tree of life. The literature of knowledge includes works that attempt to communicate information about an external, objective world (economics, politics, and so on). The literature of power draws our attention inwards, to the subjective...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...blaming novels for an ‘alarming increase of prostitutes’ in 1790 . By definition, sentimental fiction was intended to stimulate readers to feel. Moralists simply wished to turn this power to reformation rather than allow it to further the individual pursuit of pleasure. For many women, sexual relations entailed denigration and the threat of brutalization, pregnancy, and disease. By contrast, fictional heroes stayed in the reader's control; they were shown respecting women's feelings—indeed, respecting women's definition of masculinity—and responding to them...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1687 )—that is, mathematical principles of natural philosophy—the most commonly used eighteenth-century term for the study of natural phenomena was ‘natural philosophy’. Yet the wording indicates that Newton was claiming to give his subject a mathematical foundation, thereby implying that this had not yet been adequately achieved. Indeed, John *Locke , one of Newton's ardent admirers, said that natural philosophy was a subject a gentleman should look into, but its reliance on ‘experience and history’ made him suspect that ‘natural philosophy is not capable...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of mind enabling the discussion of issues of national importance, but it had many imitators. In its very form, for instance, Charles *Pigott 's much-reprinted Political Dictionary ( 1795 ) implied the importance of language in determining the political nation. Its contents sought to redefine a political vocabulary, in ironic terms, from a perspective which implied that there existed an entirely different and equally valid language of politics in which, for instance, ‘Church’ could be glossed as ‘a patent for hypocrisy; the refuge of sloth, ignorance and...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

Carl Olson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and he refused at first. After a second command, he asked what he should recite; at the third command, he spoke the 96 th sūra of the Qur’ān. The term ‘recite’ ( iqra ) is derived from the same Arabic root as Qur’ān , which implies a verbal revelation that is closely related to inspiration. Although the command to recite implies that public worship was to be instituted, when Muḥammad began his public preaching in 613 and presented himself to the people of Mecca as God’s messenger, his message was met with opposition. Yet he eventually won adherents to his...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...era terrible cholera pandemics moved from their traditional home in the Indian subcontinent and swept round the globe in six catastrophic episodes, beginning around 1830 . There were, indeed, features of medicine that changed around 1800 ; but it would be unwarrantable to imply that the age constituted some revolutionary watershed that transformed clinical medicine and gave *physicians and surgeons far greater powers than before to heal and cure, or even to understand the hidden causes of disease. Such advances were made in the latter years of the...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

Andrew Robinson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,162 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...on Easter Island, this would at last guarantee that writing must have had multiple origins, rather than radiating from a single source. 3 Decipherment In ordinary conversation, to decipher someone’s ‘indecipherable’ handwriting means to make sense of the meaning; it does not imply that one can read every single word. In its more technical sense, as applied to ancient scripts, ‘deciphered’ means different things to different scholars. At one extreme, everyone agrees that the Egyptian hieroglyphs have been deciphered—because every trained Egyptologist would...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

Andrew Murphy

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to serving the needs of the general reader. In 1725 , Allan Ramsay opened the first British *circulating library , in Edinburgh. Sixteen years later, the miners of Ramsay’s own birthplace, Leadhills, in Lanarkshire, came together to establish the Leadhills Reading Society, setting up a library and assembling a significant collection of books on a wide variety of topics. Local initiatives of this kind proliferated throughout Britain during the course of the 18 th century, serving the needs of less well-off general readers until the institution of the public ...

Theatre

Theatre   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,088 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...drew attention to those who did—the artisans and servants of the gallery who increasingly made up the bulk of audiences. Claims that the stage was in decline and that the beauties of Shakespeare were threatened by inferior forms of entertainment such as *pantomime were also implying that the tastes of the gallery now dominated. The extent and profundity of the anxiety at this development cannot be easily appreciated by twentieth-century observers. Why, for example, was * Byron drafted to ‘save’ Drury Lane in 1812 ? Why did Edward Bulwer , later ...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... A. Briggs and J. Saville (eds), Essays in Labour History ( 1960 ), showed how people came to speak of ‘class’ rather than ‘classes’, just as they had moved earlier from the notion of ‘orders’ and ‘estates’. This linguistic shift involved a change of ‘consciousness’, which implied a changing experience of relationships. Thompson's more extended work, The Making of the English Working Class ( 1963 , 2nd edn, 1968 ), which became a great classic, takes up this point by treating relationships as central to the notion of ‘class’. He sought to demonstrate,...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and voyeuristic associations, not lost on the viewers of a cheap engraving depicting Banks inviting the Tahitians to look through his phallic telescope. Although Cook himself was above any explicit reproach, it is notable that illustrations in the reprints of the voyages implied precisely these moral ambiguities, not specifically for natural history, but for the voyage as a whole. One such illustration has two striking features: a huge Union Jack that forms a backdrop to an encounter, in which a Tahitian chief is said in the caption to ‘present’ his...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is theorized as moving through a series of stages sequenced in an order that is more or less autonomous and stable. Insofar as the stages are also ‘ages’, these sequencings can be said to constitute temporal orders. On the other hand, this same historiographical discourse always implies as well a second temporality, which is the temporality in which these different national times can be correlated and calendrically dated in respect to each other. Depending on the writer, this larger order might or might not be taken as having its own development sequence. Rates...

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