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implicit contract

An understanding between parties on acceptable forms of behaviour that is not part of any formal agreement. Implicit contracts arise in many social situations and have been proposed as an ...

implicit contract

implicit contract   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
73 words

...implicit contract An understanding between parties on acceptable forms of behaviour that is not part of any formal agreement. Implicit contracts arise in many social situations and have been proposed as an explanation of labour market institutions. Implicit contracts usually develop over time and represent trust between parties. For example, it has been suggested that Coca-Cola has an implicit contract with its consumers not to alter the formulation of its standard cola...

implicit contract

implicit contract  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An understanding between parties on acceptable forms of behaviour that is not part of any formal agreement. Implicit contracts arise in many social situations and have been proposed as an explanation ...
The Medina Document

The Medina Document   Reference library

Ali Bulaç

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,296 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...drawn from the Document: A righteous and just, law-respecting ideal project aiming for true peace and stability among people cannot but be based on a contract among different groups (religious, legal, philosophical, political, etc.). During the preparation of the contract, the members or the representatives of the social groups should be present, the articles of the contract (basic principles) should be decided in a free environment, involving discussions and negotiations of the different parties involved. . . . Since the groups...

Shari‘a: The Codification of Islamic Law

Sharia: The Codification of Islamic Law   Reference library

Muhammad Sa‘id Al-‘Ashmawi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,146 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...religious law, and that of insurance contracts which some consider—wrongly in our view—as speculative contracts and hence as illicit. These two questions should be the object of a debate, as open as possible, to which the judges and all religious scholars should contribute, a debate that is really free and limited solely by a frame of authentic free opinion ( ijtihad ) as described above. In matters of procedure , the Qur'an has only one verse relative to the proof of debts: “O believers, when you contract a debt one upon another for a stated...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...between early patriarchal conceptions of the family and modern ones was that the extended family was diminished to be replaced by husband and wife, so that the marriage contract fashioned domestic relations. It was this liberal-capitalist ideal, best expounded by Locke, that informs the modern idea of the ‘housewife’, someone who is related to her husband as a kind of contracted but unpaid worker in the home. The widely read writings of Rousseau elaborated this version of family life. For Rousseau, the family was naturally and necessarily patriarchal....

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and varying standards of taste. At the close of the 19 th century, the leaders of the American Library Association felt that they were responsible for stocking their shelves with the ‘best’ reading. The reformer Melvil *Dewey ardently promoted that principle, which implicitly relegated most fiction to an inferior status. The rapid proliferation of local libraries between 1900 and 1920 (thanks in large part to *Carnegie ’s philanthropy), however, heightened librarians’ concern with library science ( see information science ). The ALA’s ...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and early fifth centuries, were responses to the challenges posed by now Christian Rome, as the eminent scholar of rabbinic Judaism Jacob Neusner has suggested. Both in their doctrines of history, Messiah, and Torah and in their depictions of Rome, these works appear to respond implicitly to Christian dominance, notwithstanding the absence of explicit reference to Christianity in them. The same period was also formative in the evolution of such institutions as the synagogue, the patriarchate, and the office of rabbi. Today the intimate association...

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Hekataios, and Berossos, whilst providing an alternative to the predominant Hellenistic values of the time. It ascribes well-received Hellenistic improvements (in agriculture, fortress construction, army organization, and warfare technology) to Israel, but virtually ignores or implicitly combats Greek culture and theology. This thesis has been partially anticipated by Welten ( 1973 ). According to him the war reports which are unique material in Chronicles reflect the constant threat to which Judah was exposed during the 3rd century through the conflicts of...

Hebrews

Hebrews   Reference library

Harold W. Attridge and Harold W. Attridge

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...hortatory comment. v. 14 , as at 10:19 , the homilist bases his exhortation on a statement of what his audience possesses. That Jesus is a ‘high priest’ appeared at 2:17 , although the title's significance remains to be seen. That he has ‘passed through the heavens’ is implicit in the image of his exaltation ( 1:3, 13; 2:7–9; 9:11 ). The title ‘Son of God’, a fuller form of the title Son ( 1:5 ) reappears at 6:6; 7:3; 10:29 . The juxtaposition of the name Jesus and this majestic title may be characteristic of liturgical formulas to which the homilist...

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria   Reference library

Edward F. Campbell Jr.

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,373 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of a temple to Baal in Jerusalem—the first reference to such an institution there—implying that the fault lay in Athaliah's membership in the Omri-Ahab line, sharing its religious perspective. When the clash came that ended her reign, she could cry “Treason!” ( 2 Kings 11:14 ). Implicitly her rule is conceded by the DH to have been considered legitimate at least by parts of the Jerusalem establishment. The story provides a rare glimpse of the people and institutions of Judah—a cycle of guards captained by military leaders which went on and off duty on the...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...argument traces the line of essential discontinuity, which is precisely what Marcion and other despisers of Judaism have found congenial in his thinking. One must ask if it is possible to affirm what Paul affirms (the religion of grace) without necessarily denying what Paul implicitly denies (that Judaism itself is such a religion). Commentary on Romans Craig C. Hill Salutation ( 1:1–17 ) Although the basic shape of the salutation is the same in all Paul's letters (an indication of the sender(s) and recipient(s) followed by a short blessing), the form is...

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt   Reference library

Amy-Jill Levine

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and a half later. For this cosmopolitan Jew living in Rome, the Judean movements are philosophic schools divided principally over the perennial question of fate and free will. Josephus goes on to compare the Pharisees with the Stoics, the Essenes with the Pythagoreans, and, implicitly, the Sadducees with the Epicureans. Unfortunately absent from his descriptions are such concerns of modern historians as detailed reports of lifestyle, views of the Torah, and attitudes toward the Temple. The Sadducees and Pharisees are also mentioned by the Jewish...

Exodus

Exodus   Reference library

Walter Houston and Walter Houston

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,486 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fortunes of the battle. Older commentators presume that his arms were raised in prayer; but if so why does the narrative not say he was praying? As Van Seters ( 1994 : 203) points out, Josh 8:18–26 is similar. In both cases the automatic connection suggests magic; it is only implicit that God was in action. It is only the end of the story ( 17:14–16 ) that makes it clear that Israel's battle is, as always, YHWH's—to the death in this case. The Hebrew text in v. 16 is unclear. The NRSV's ‘A hand upon the banner of the Lord ’ is the best suggestion, since...

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kings   Reference library

Walter Dietrich, Walter Dietrich, and Walter Dietrich

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
40,434 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to eradicate not only the ruling king, but also the entire ruling house after a coup. This minimized the threat of blood-revenge and claims to the throne. The royal house of Omri resided in Samaria ( 1 Kings 16:24 ). Jehu addresses the Samarians and with seeming fairness, but implicitly threatening them, lets them choose between loyalty to the previous dynasty and defection to him, the murderer of their king ( vv. 1–5 ). Letters regarding the fate of the Omrides strongly remind us of Ahab and Jezebel's correspondence with the nobles of Jezreel concerning...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Stemberger ( 1996 : 251–7 ); see further Neusner ( 1988 ).) Though the Midrashim were produced long after the biblical period, they are of immense importance for the understanding of the Bible. The exegetical reasoning which they explicitly express often appears to be implicit in earlier interpretations of the Bible, and a knowledge of rabbinic Midrash is essential for an understanding of the whole tradition of Jewish Bible exegesis. Midrashic methods have been found operating within the HB itself in the reinterpretation of earlier layers of...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...aetiologies of the name Beersheba here: it is the place of the well ( bĕ᾽ēr ) of the oath ( šĕbū῾â ) but also of seven ( šeba῾ ). The tree planted by Abraham marked the spot where the covenant was made. The ‘Everlasting God’ ( ᾽ēl ῾ôlām ) worshipped by Abraham here, and implicitly identified with YHWH, was probably originally a local deity associated with Beersheba. The ‘land of the Philistines’ is an anachronism: the Philistines in fact arrived in Canaan and established their cities there near the Mediterranean coast during the twelfth century bce and...

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Samuel   Reference library

Gwilym H. Jones, Gwilym H. Jones, and Gwilym H. Jones

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,450 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Requests a King This section, with its negative attitude towards the monarchy, contains the elders of Israel's request for a king and reports their persistence despite Samuel's warning about the oppressive ways of kings. There were two reasons for the quest for a king, one implicit and the other explicitly stated. According to vv. 1–3 , Samuel's position was similar to that of Eli before him, for his sons were unfit to succeed him ( v. 5 ). Perverting justice in Beersheba, which was more southerly than Samuel's normal circuit, gave sufficient grounds for...

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach   Reference library

John J. Collins and John J. Collins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
38,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Moses, having been created ‘in the beginning’. Later, rabbinic authorities would claim that the Torah too was created before the world, and was even the instrument with which the world was created ( Urbach 1975 : i. 287 ). On this understanding, the law revealed to Moses was implicit in creation from the beginning ( Marböck 1971 : 93–4 ; for a contrary interpretation see Schnabel 1985 ). Cf. Rom 1:20 , although Paul evidently did not regard all details of the law as part of the law of creation. Sirach also ignores most of the levitical laws, and does not...

contract theory

contract theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The study of contracts, with particular emphasis on the design of contracts to provide appropriate incentives. See also implicit contract; incentive contract; principal–agent problem.
open account

open account  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A form of short-term sales financing where transactions are made with no formal debt contract other than the receipt. Contractual terms are implicit rather than explicit, including the credit period ...

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