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implicational universals

One of the classes of linguistic universals, taking the form if A, then B, where A and B are two properties of languages. A typical example, suggested by the US linguist Joseph H. ...

implicational universals

implicational universals n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... universals n . One of the classes of linguistic universals , taking the form if A, then B , where A and B are two properties of languages. A typical example, suggested by the US linguist Joseph H. Greenberg ( 1915–2001 ), is the following: If a language has gender ( 2 ) categories in nouns, then it has gender categories in...

implicational universals

implicational universals  

One of the classes of linguistic universals, taking the form if A, then B, where A and B are two properties of languages. A typical example, suggested by the US linguist Joseph H. Greenberg ...
implicational universal

implicational universal   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
27 words

... universal A linguistic universal of the form ‘if a then b ’. E.g. if a language has phonetically nasal vowels, it also has oral...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...all have the same premise—that there shall be universal standards of human rights which must be observed by all countries of the world, or countries of the region in the case of regional documents. There is some debate as to the genuine universality of some of these standards, 4 and there are some serious problems of enforcement. This does not mean, however, that there are no universal and binding standards or that enforcement efforts should be abandoned. The position adopted here is that there are certain universal standards of human rights which are binding...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Coleridge was unhappy about its democratic implications from as early as 1802 , when he dissented from Wordsworth's ‘daring Humbleness of Language’. In the Biographia Literaria ( 1817 ) Coleridge was suggesting that the language of rustics was not one which could seriously qualify as philosophical and permanent: A rustic's language, purified from all provincialism and grossness, and so far reconstructed as to be made consistent with the rules of grammar (which are in essence no other than the laws of universal logic, applied to Psychological materials),...

Qur'an and Woman

Qur'an and Woman   Reference library

Amina Wadud-Muhsin

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,749 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to variations in emphasis between these three aspects. I argue against some conventional interpretations, especially about certain words used in the Qur'an to discuss and fulfill universal guidance. I render some discussions, heretofore considered as gendered, into neutral terms. Other discussions, heretofore considered as universal, I render specific on the basis of their limitations and on the expression in terms specific to seventh-century Arabia. Some historical information with regard to occasions of revelation and the general...

Universalism in Islam

Universalism in Islam   Reference library

Chandra Muzaffar

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by aggressive nationalism of the Western type. He conceived of Islam as a universal religion which envisaged all humanity as a unity. But the Islam of his time had become narrow, rigid and static. He conceived of life as evolutionary and dynamic. He came to the conclusion that a fossilized religious dogmatism could not generate an outlook that would lead to the self-realization of individuals and communities. 25 It is this universal character of Islam, its conception of humanity as a unity, that we have...

Rights and Roles of Woman

Rights and Roles of Woman   Reference library

Amina Wadud

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,307 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...have earned and unto women a fortune from that which they have earned’ ( 4:32 ). The deeds may be different, but recompense is given based on what one does. It does not matter how the deeds are divided between the males and the females in a particular social context. Another implication of a ‘fortune from what one earns’ is that whenever anyone performs tasks normally attributed to the other gender in addition to his or her own normal tasks, he or she will earn an additional reward. For example, Moses meets two women from Madyan, where ordinarily the males...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...how books and the literary marketplace had created a new kind of public, the mass of readers, conscious of their capacity to play a part in the evolving drama of national politics. By 1776 this reading public was well established and the cultural and especially political implications of its composition were vigorously debated. What were its boundaries? Should the reading public be monitored, or learn to discipline itself? For the bookseller James *Lackington , the expansion in the reading public was a development to be welcomed, especially insofar as it...

Islamic Faith and the Problem of Pluralism: Relations Among the Believers

Islamic Faith and the Problem of Pluralism: Relations Among the Believers   Reference library

Madjid Nurcholish

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,828 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Islamic teachings on religious plurality. Concepts of the Oneness and the Truth Deeply rooted in the consciousness of the Muslim worldview is that Islam is a universal religion, a religion for everyone. It is true that this awareness also belongs to believers of other religions (the Jews deny the universal validity of Christianity and Islam, and Christians deny the universal validity of Judaism and Islam). However, it is only fair to say that for Muslims, this awareness bears with it a socio-religious attitude that is unique, which is very...

The Song of Solomon

The Song of Solomon   Reference library

Athalya Brenner

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and rural settings. Imagery of food, drink, flora and fauna interchanges with metaphors of fortifications and military phenomena. In short, and in spite of the mention of place-names (such as Jerusalem, Tirzah, Gilead, Lebanon, Hermon), the universal phenomenon of erotic love is communicated in a largely universal manner, hence its appeal. B. Place in the Hebrew Canon, Date, and Text. 1. The Song is one of the Five Scrolls, a collection of short texts (also Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther) placed within the third and latest division of the HB...

Colossians

Colossians   Reference library

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP and Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is common in the Essene hymns ( Kuhn 1968 : 117 ), which also attest a use of ‘saints’ encompassing both angels and believers (1QS 11:7–8; Benoit 1982 ). The Colossians have already been empowered to live in the realm of light where God's holiness is experienced. The implication is that the ascetic practices and visions advocated by the false teachers are unnecessary. 1:12–14 is the key to understanding 2:13–15 ( Sappington 1991 : 203 ). In 1 Thess 5:5 Paul contrasted the past and present of believers in terms of ‘darkness’ and ‘light’ ( cf. Rom...

Mark

Mark   Reference library

C. M. Tuckett and C. M. Tuckett

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,701 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Markan pattern: elsewhere in Mark commands for secrecy after miracles are regularly broken ( 1:45; 7:36 ). Should one assume the same here and see the motif as highlighting by implication Jesus' success ( cf. 1:45 : so Luz 1983 ) ? But this is not what Mark says. Perhaps the point is that the crowds outside have shown no faith at all in their mocking laughter ( v. 40 ). By implication they already have a very superficial explanation of what will inevitably be the public knowledge of the girl's health: she was simply asleep and not really dead at all. The true...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

R. Coggins and R. Coggins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...neglected or ignored by God is answered with the twofold assertion, of the universal creative power of God, and of his continuing concern for the faint and powerless. ( 41:1–7 ) These verses take up a literary form which we have seen to be characteristic of Isaiah from 1:2 onwards: the trial scene. But whereas in that first poem it was the people of YHWH who were themselves accused, now it is rival gods whose claims are under scrutiny. The trial begins with the summons to universal silence, and the invitation to the witnesses to come forward for judgement (...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Ibn Khaldun, in his famous Prolegomena , mentions three distinct views of the idea of Universal Caliphate in Islam: (1) That Universal Imamate is a Divine institution, and is consequently indispensable; (2) that it is merely a matter of expediency; (3) that there is no need of such an institution. The last view was taken by the Khawarji. 4 It seems that modern Turkey has shifted from the first to the second view, i.e., to the view of the Mu‘tazila 5 who regarded Universal Imamate as a matter of expediency only. The Turks argue that in our political thinking...

Zechariah

Zechariah   Reference library

Katrina J. A. Larkin and Katrina J. A. Larkin

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,902 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to be replaced by something totally new, with the implication that the old order was too hopelessly corrupt to be redeemable. Such an extreme intention seems improbable bearing in mind that historical realities (such as the importance of the city of Jerusalem) have been allowed to shape the picture of the day of the Lord. There is a two-era view of time such as is characteristic of full-blown apocalyptic, but there is not complete discontinuity with what has gone before. v. 9 acclaims the universal kingship of God (see ‘Kingdom of God’, OCB ) and vv....

Amos

Amos   Reference library

Jennifer M. Dines and Jennifer M. Dines

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Ekron are other Philistine city-states; Gath is not mentioned till 6:2 . Philistia's punishment is severer than Aram's. A remnant which itself is devastated recurs elsewhere (esp. 9:4; cf. Isa 6:11–13 ). ( 1:9–10 ) Tyre Of the Phoenician cities, only Tyre is mentioned; by implication all are probably covered. The crime resembles Gaza's; in addition, some contract or treaty has been broken; the word bĕrît (covenant) occurs, but not theologically of a ‘contract’ between God and Israel. The deportees are not explicitly Israelites, though Judeans might...

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding   Reference library

Nurcholish Madjid

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,874 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...values but have now accepted them, at no time intended to adopt the new values as principal attitudes in life. Hence a new and liberal group of Islamic renovators is required. As for the meaning of the word liberal , we have already given it above. But the term has further implications, as a logical consequence, namely, nontraditionalism and nonsectarianism. What is further demanded here is that there has to be the capability and the courage constantly to review the group's (sect's) own values. Those values need not be brought forth again if...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was this ‘lying cleric’, Percy, who edited and altered oral culture for consumption by the polite classes. The press weighed in on either side, and the debate in the letter columns of journals is of great interest for its class consciousness and class hostility, as well as its implications for the notion of culture. Francis *Douce privately bound up Ritson 's Observations not with Warton 's History but with the ferocious debate it spawned; he identifies the different combatants in the Bodleian copy, including Ritson himself, who intervened on his own...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...undermined some of the more extravagant hopes of achieving mastery over nature, including human nature, that were characteristic of rationalistic forms of the *Enlightenment [32] , whether based on technocratic promise or universal benevolence and social transparency. Malthus also queried what he took to be an unwarranted implication of Smith's model of economic growth, the assumption that capital accumulation, when concentrated on manufactured luxuries rather than agrarian necessities, would invariably benefit the mass of society [ see *consumerism, 19 ]....

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