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illusory correlation

An apparent correlation that does not actually exist in the data being judged. In the classic demonstration of the illusion in 1967, the US psychologists Loren J(ames) Chapman (born 1927) ...

illusory correlation

illusory correlation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... correlation n . An apparent correlation that does not actually exist in the data being judged. In the classic demonstration of the illusion in 1967 , the US psychologists Loren J(ames) Chapman (born 1927 ) and Jean Chapman (born 1929 ) presented experienced clinicians and students with information about a number of mental patients—for each patient, diagnostic statements and a drawing of a person made by that patient. The clinicians and students then estimated, from memory, the frequency with which different diagnostic statements (such as The...

illusory correlation

illusory correlation  

An apparent correlation that does not actually exist in the data being judged. In the classic demonstration of the illusion in 1967, the US psychologists Loren J(ames) Chapman (born 1927) and Jean ...
1 Esdras

1 Esdras   Reference library

Sara Japhet and Sara Japhet

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,313 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...are masters, all are rich, all are happy. This blurring of distinction may lead a person to treat a friend as an enemy, but he cannot be asked to take responsibility for his deeds, for the world under the influence of wine is unreal: when the wine is gone nothing remains of the illusory world, not even memory. Although this speech is independent of the other themes, it already refers to the next contestant, ‘the king’—which might suggest a different original order. The king is mentioned from two different angles: the influence of wine on the king himself, whose...

implicit personality theory

implicit personality theory  

A set of assumptions that a person makes, often unconsciously, about the correlations between personality traits, including such widespread assumptions as that warmth is positively correlated with ...
availability heuristic

availability heuristic  

A cognitive heuristic through which the frequency or probability of an event is judged by the number of instances of it that can readily be brought to mind. It can generate biased or incorrect ...
cognitive illusion

cognitive illusion  

An illusion in the cognitive domain, one of the best known examples being the size-weight illusion, although it is also a tactile illusion. See also experimentally induced false memory, ...
Barnum effect

Barnum effect  

A tendency for people to accept vague, ambiguous, and generalized statements as being accurate descriptions of their own personalities. The effect was first demonstrated empirically in 1949 by the US ...
cognitive illusion

cognitive illusion n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...illusion n. An illusion in the cognitive domain, one of the best known examples being the size–weight illusion , although it is also a tactile illusion. See also experimentally induced false memory , filled-duration illusion , illusory correlation , Moses illusion , rubber hand phenomenon , Rumpelstiltskin phenomenon , Tycho’s illusion , yolk phenomenon...

correlation

correlation  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...desirable properties in terms of efficiency (i.e., it no longer has minimum variance). Special tests (such as the Durbin–Watson test) exist for determining serial correlation, and econometric procedures may be used to restore the efficiency of the estimates. See also regression analysis . One of the principle risks of any research methodology is the possibility of illusory or spurious correlations that stem either from coincidences in the data or from the prior expectations of the observer. Multiple-indicator models and multiple operationalism provide...

implicit personality theory

implicit personality theory n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( 1915–2016 ) and the Italian-born US psychologist Renato Tagiuri ( 1919–2011 ), who called it a lay personality theory , and in 1955 by the US psychologist Lee J(oseph) Cronbach ( 1916–2001 ), who introduced the term implicit personality theory . See also illusory correlation , trait centrality...

availability heuristic

availability heuristic n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...beginning with k , whereas in fact a typical long text contains twice as many words with k as the third letter. The heuristic was first identified in 1973 by the Israeli‐American psychologists Amos Tversky ( 1937–96 ) and Daniel Kahneman (born 1934 ). See also illusory correlation , simulation heuristic...

graphology

graphology   Reference library

Raj Persaud

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
406 words

...between people. Though you could replace handwriting with bumps on the skull to illustrate the reason natural variation between people should not mean personality is associated with such features. (Published 2004) Raj Persaud King, R. N. , and Koehler, D. J. (2000). ‘ Illusory correlations in graphological inference ’. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied , 6/4. Stein, D. J. (2001). ‘ Handwriting and obsessive-compulsive disorder ’. Lancet ,...

Barnum effect

Barnum effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...reveals the basic characteristics of your personality’, and most of them chose 4 or 5, with a mean of 4.26. They were also asked to ‘check each statement as true or false about yourself’; the average number of statements accepted as true was 10.23 out of 13. See also illusory correlation . [The term Barnum effect was introduced in 1956 in an article in the journal American Psychologist by the US psychologist Paul Everett Meehl ( 1920–2003 ), quoting an unpublished comment by the US psychologist Donald G(ildersleeve) Paterson ( 1892–1962 ) about...

Mueller, Gustav Emil

Mueller, Gustav Emil (1898–1987)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
859 words

...is, everything). This means, in the words of Alfred North Whitehead , that “in philosophical discussion, the merest hint of dogmatic certainty as to finality of statement is an exhibition of folly” (in the Preface to Process and Reality ). If we invest our position with such illusory finality and completeness, we cease to be philosophers and become ideologues. Ideology is incompatible with true philosophy, and is the enemy of truth. In what is probably his best-known essay, “The Hegel Legend of ‘Thesis–Antithesis– Synthesis’,” Mueller inveighs against the...

Inference in Social Cognition

Inference in Social Cognition   Reference library

D. Vaughn Becker, Christian Unkelbach, and Klaus Fiedler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Social Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2024
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Social sciences
Length:
12,739 words
Illustration(s):
3

...insidious example is that of illusory correlations ( Chapman, 1967 ). Hamilton and Gifford ( 1976 ) reported an interesting case of illusory correlations. The most relevant examples are majority/minority status and positive/negative behaviors. Majorities are more frequent than minorities by default, and positive behaviors are more frequent than negative behaviors ( Unkelbach et al., 2019 ). Illusory correlations describe cases in which people infer that minorities show more negative behaviors, even if there is no correlation in the data given. Initial...

illusions

illusions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,475 words
Illustration(s):
3

...produced by an illusory vertical contour. The brain supplies the missing contour to give the overall illusion, but it cannot supply acute angles for the supposed orientation detectors to distort. Although this does not disprove a theory of misperceived angles, it goes against the idea of lateral inhibition between orientation detectors. In Kitaoka's bulge illusion, the tiny black and white squares give rise to perceived obliques, probably owing to low‐level neural interactions, and the apparent obliques in turn generate an illusory three‐dimensional...

Free jazz

Free jazz   Reference library

David Borgo

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,525 words
Illustration(s):
1

...S. Isoardi : The Dark Tree: Jazz and the Community Arts in Los Angeles (Berkeley, 2006) I. Anderson : This is our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties, and American Culture (Philadelphia, 2007) M. Gridley : “Misconceptions in Linking Free Jazz with the Civil Rights Movement: Illusory Correlations between Politics and the Origination of Jazz Styles,” College Music Symposium , xlvii (2008), 139–55 G. Lewis : A Power Stronger than itself: the AACM and American Experimental Music (Chicago, 2008) B. Piekut : “Race, Community, and Conflict in the Jazz Composers...

Exploration Narratives

Exploration Narratives   Reference library

Catherine Taylor

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,232 words

...which, like many other European acts, clearly worked to erase the native inhabitants of the country, was (and is) a powerful mythology inextricably linked with the notion of America as paradise, through which its explorers partake in what R. W. B. Lewis called “the noble but illusory myth of the American as Adam.” But this was paradise with a twist; in the narratives, “Eve” rarely figured, and paradise could always be found again. Even as the land became despoiled through civilization and, in the nineteenth century, industrialization, there remained the...

V1 and visual consciousness

V1 and visual consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,231 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of an illusory white square lying in front of four circles (i.e. modal completion). (c) Amodal completion of a black bar behind a grey occluder. Here, there is no perception of illusory contours but still an impression of connectedness. (d) Visual phantoms can be perceived in the blank gray region between the two collinear gratings. (e) Example of neon colour spreading. An illusory impression of a transparent grey circle lying in front may be perceived, which extends across the physically uniform black region. (f) Two‐frame display used to evoke illusory line...

binding problem

binding problem   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,929 words

...Consequently, patients with Balint's syndrome report seeing random and rapidly changing illusory bindings of features, not knowing which feature in reality belongs together with which others. Coherent, stable visual objects cannot be held together in the absence of the required cognitive mechanisms. According to Treisman ( 2003 :103), ‘attention provides a window for consciousness through which we become aware of a small subset of real bindings among a throng of illusory phantom objects’. Thus, the cognitive binding mechanism proposed in FIT may account for...

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