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Overview

ideal type

Ideal types in sociology are most closely associated with the name of Max Weber, although as a method of investigation and explanation they are more commonly found in economics, for ...

ideal type

ideal type   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... type A representation of a phenomenon in its abstract or pure...

ideal type

ideal type ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
24 words

... type [Th] A ‘pure type’, constructed by emphasizing certain traits of a given social entity which do not necessarily exist anywhere in...

ideal type

ideal type   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
169 words

... type A hypothetical description of the pure characteristics of a phenomenon or object. Ideal types are strongly associated with the methodological theories of Max Weber and play a prominent role in his work on bureaucracy . Ideal types are not simple descriptions of real-world phenomena; instead, they are primarily analytical devices that aid in thinking about the constitutive logic or internal tendencies of objects (such as markets or institutions). The ideal types themselves rarely correspond exactly to the complex examples found in reality. In Weber's...

ideal-type

ideal-type   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...-type Producing a pure model of a phenomenon against which actual manifestations can be measured and discussed. For example, when Weber set out the ideal-type of bureaucracy , he was not suggesting that any bureaucracy would have all of the features of the ideal-type. Rather, he was seeking to identify the key features of bureaucracy and their analytical importance through setting them out in an ideal...

ideal type

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
385 words

... type Ideal types in sociology are most closely associated with the name of Max Weber , although as a method of investigation and explanation they are more commonly found in economics, for example in the concept of the perfect market. For Weber, the construction of an ideal type was clearly a heuristic device , or method of investigation. An ideal type is neither an average type nor a simple description of the most commonly found features of real-world phenomena. Thus one does not construct an ideal type of bureaucracy by finding the features that are...

ideal type

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
55 words

... type A form of conceptual abstraction designed to identify the key characteristics of any given process, system, institution, or policy. The term is associated with German sociologist Max Weber ( 1864–1920 ), for whom ideal types were not ‘perfect’ versions of their ‘imperfect’ real world analogues, but heuristics designed to aid...

ideal type

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A Dictionary of Social Research Methods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
72 words

...ideal type A concept which summarizes the essence of several characteristics of a group of things. One example would be ‘authoritarian government’. Because of a strong affiliation with Max Weber ( 1864–1920 ), ideal types are often used as category assertions that underpin a theoretical typology . The relationship with evidence may be weak so ideal typology can be contrasted with the configurational typologies which form a key part of qualitative comparative analysis ...

Ideal type

Ideal type   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
98 words

... type . A key concept and strategy in the study of religions, introduced by M. Weber . Because of the complex and fluid nature of social (and thus of religious) phenomena, Weber realized that observations of actual instances have to be described through the isolation of characteristic features: examples are ‘economic man’, ‘marginal man’, ‘sect’ , ‘church’ , ‘Gemeinschaft’ (a group in which social bonds are based on close personal ties of kinship and friendship), ‘Gesellschaft’ (secondary relationships prevail, i.e. of a formal, contractual,...

ideal type

ideal type   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
304 words

... type In the work of Max Weber , a heuristic device for capturing the primary qualities of a subject under study; a kind of conceptual model, an abstraction from the concrete reality. A good example of this in Weber's own work was his notion of bureaucracy . In his essay on ‘“Objectivity” in Social Science’ ( 1904 ) Weber emphasized that the ideal type was conceived as an accentuation of reality, not a simple representation of it. Constructing an ideal type is part of the general process of analysis of social phenomena; so for Weber, sociology was a...

ideal type

ideal type  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Ideal types in sociology are most closely associated with the name of Max Weber, although as a method of investigation and explanation they are more commonly found in economics, for example in the ...
41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

Beth McKillop

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...introduction of cast metal-type printing led neither to an expansion of publishing nor to demonstrable increases in literacy. The reasons for this lie in the Confucian values that dominated society. With a strong focus on self-cultivation and virtuous leadership, the government encouraged austerity and deplored commerce. According to Confucius, the ideal man should be ‘poor yet delighting in the Way, wealthy yet observant of the rites’ ( * Analects , i.15). Korean scholar-officials of the Chosŏn fervently upheld this Confucian ideal, depressing the natural...

Islam and the Challenge of Economic Development

Islam and the Challenge of Economic Development   Reference library

Ahmad Khurshid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,573 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...development economics are rooted in the value pattern embodied in the Qur'ān and Sunna. This is our basic frame of reference. Our second premise is that this approach clearly rules out a strategy of imitation. The Capitalist and the Socialist models cannot be adopted as our ideal-types, although we would like to avail ourselves of all those experiences of mankind which can be gainfully assimilated and integrated within the Islamic framework and can serve our own purposes without in any way impairing our values and norms. But we must reject the archetypes of ...

A Separate Muslim State in the Subcontinent

A Separate Muslim State in the Subcontinent   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbāl

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,487 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...type of unitary government contemplated by the nationalist Hindu politicians with a view to secure permanent communal dominance in the whole of India. Nor should the Hindus fear that the creation of autonomous Muslim states will mean the introduction of a kind of religious rule in such states. I have already indicated to you the meaning of the word ‘religion,’ as applied to Islam. The truth is that Islam is not a church. It is a state, conceived as a contractual organism long before Rousseau ever thought of such a thing, and animated by an ethical ideal...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...says in the Vindication of the Rights of Woman ( 1792 ), ‘I pay particular attention to those in the middle class, because they appear to be in the most natural state.’ This naturalization of middle-class ideological prerogatives is what constitutes the ideal of domesticity. The domestic ideal, or the ideal of the sentimental or affective family, was self-consciously opposed by the middle classes to what they perceived to be the mercenary or dynastic courtship and marriage practices of the aristocracy. The conventional understanding of the institutions of...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...nostalgia underpinned much of the utopian/anti-utopian debate throughout the period. Most utopian speculation from 1660 to 1790 was a combination of three basic types: the scientific and technological, modelled on Francis Bacon 's New Atlantis ( 1627 ); imaginary *travel literature , inspired by the voyages of *exploration [37] , usually to more virtuous primitive societies; and models of ideal moderate constitutionalist societies, often in the tradition of James Harrington 's Oceana ( 1656 ). Usually deeply critical of existing social and political...

The Concept of Islamic Socialism

The Concept of Islamic Socialism   Reference library

A. K. Brohi

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,409 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Socialism; but on the other hand, if you think that it will not advance the cause of justice but frustrate it, you may not subscribe to its doctrine. But what has that got to do with Islam, anyway! This strategy of Socialism may be of some importance today to realise the ideal of justice but tomorrow it may not—it is no use, therefore, implicating Islam in this manoeuvre. By “Socialism” one ordinarily understands an economic philosophy which enjoins upon its votaries the necessity of regarding the instruments of production and the questions relating to...

Polish Family Names

Polish Family Names   Reference library

Aleksandra Cieślikowa and Paweł Swoboda

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
2,377 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...common suffix found in Polish surnames (after ‑ski / ‑cki , ‑ak , ‑icz / ‑ycz , ‑ik / ‑yk , and ‑ek ). Surnames ending in ‑uk are now borne by more than 300,000 people in Poland. Types of Names Names Based on Placenames and Landscape Features The most characteristic type of native Polish surnames has the ending ‑ski , ‑cki , or ‑dzki . Early bearers of this type of surname are often mentioned in historical records and lists of those bearing coats of arms. These surnames are generally habitational names, derived from placenames, but some are also...

Zechariah

Zechariah   Reference library

Katrina J. A. Larkin and Katrina J. A. Larkin

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,902 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the exegesis may be contemporary and the passage a literary unity. In chs. 9–10 overall the future is pictured as an improved version of Israel's past in which everything will be made new. Eschatology cannot be solely a question of deferred ideals, since utter failure is unlikely to provide a picture of the ideal future. History therefore provides some of the content of eschatology. ( Ch. 11 ) The Shepherd Allegory 11:1–3 is a link passage (the ‘stitch words’ are ‘Lebanon’ ( cf. 10:12; 11:1 ) and ‘shepherds’ ( 10:3; 11:3, 4 ). It alludes to Jer 25:36 ....

German Family Names

German Family Names   Reference library

Edda Gentry

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
6,303 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subjects, however, had been sorely neglected. Since the late 1790s new ideas and ideals had emerged, especially in the classrooms of the universities, concerning the rights, the worth, and the liberty of an individual. It was on the basis of this realization that scholars, students, and liberals of various backgrounds joined forces in the years leading up to the Revolution of 1848 to bring about political unification, to reduce the power of the aristocracy, and to strive for a type of government that would guarantee basic rights for everyone. A parliament was...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

Marcus Walsh

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,054 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...); printed in hand-set *type , machine-set type, or *stereotype ; composed at a keyboard, electronically processed, and output to an electronic printing device; or electronically processed and sent as a file direct to a local visual display or to the *World Wide Web . Texts are products of human agency, composed by individuals and copied and processed—in MS, printed, and electronic forms—by a variety of technologies, all embodying human crafts and decisions. Through these processes, texts are subject to innumerable types of variation and mistake. A...

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