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hypothetico-deductive method

Subject: Philosophy

The method particularly associated with a philosophy of science that stresses the virtues of falsification. Most simply, a hypothesis is proposed, and consequences are deduced, which are ...

hypothetico-deductive method

hypothetico-deductive method   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
49 words

...-deductive method Often referred to as the scientific method , the hypothetico-deductive method is an approach to testing and theoretical knowledge based on logical principles of deduction. It postulates a movement from general theories to testable hypotheses and predictions, and finally to empirical observations that support or disprove the...

hypothetico-deductive method

hypothetico-deductive method n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-deductive method n . The standard research method of empirical science in which hypotheses are formulated and tested by deducing predictions from them and then testing the predictions through controlled experiments , hypotheses that are falsified being rejected and replaced by new ones. Also called scientific method . See also confirmation bias , falsifiability , induction ( 1 )...

Hypothetico-Deductive Method

Hypothetico-Deductive Method   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Hypothetico-Deductive Method Karl Popper’s term (following Hume) for Deductive Logic as applied to scientific research. For Popper, science is that which is testable. 537 Therefore, a hypothesis must be stated a priori in order to test its survivability by efforts to reject it. Popper’s underlying assumption is that no hypothesis can be truly verified and proved; at best, it can be corroborated . Many scientists reject Popper’s assumption of nonverifiability . In order to verify ideas and hypotheses, scientists are often obliged to argue by...

hypothetico-deductive method

hypothetico-deductive method   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
166 words

...-deductive method . A theory in science is a general statement (or hypothesis ) from which particular inferences may be deduced. Thus, from the theory ‘All planets have elliptical orbits’, given the information that Mars is a planet, we can deduce that Mars has an elliptical orbit. Observations (here, of Mars's orbit) can then be seen as confirming or falsifying the hypothesis. In the twentieth century Karl Popper and many other philosophers of science before him saw the core of science as the deployment of what is called the hypothetico-deductive...

hypothetico-deductive method

hypothetico-deductive method   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
110 words

...-deductive method Scientific method in which propositions which follow from a general hypothesis are tested against experimental or other data to determine whether the hypothesis is confirmed or is false. Often applied in the 1960s and 1970s to the validation of a generative grammar . Thus the grammar is a hypothesis about the sentences of a language; from it one predicts that certain forms are grammatical and certain others are not; if these predictions accord with the judgements of speakers the grammar is to that extent confirmed; if not, it must in...

hypothetico-deductive method

hypothetico-deductive method   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
149 words

...-deductive method The method particularly associated with a philosophy of science that stresses the virtues of falsification . Most simply, a hypothesis is proposed, and consequences are deduced, which are then tested against experience. If the hypothesis is falsified, then we learn from the attempt, and are in a position to produce a better one. If not, then we can try other tests. One philosophical divide is between radical followers of Popper , who deny that probability accrues to a theory through its having survived such tests, and others who...

hypothetico-deductive method

hypothetico-deductive method  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The method particularly associated with a philosophy of science that stresses the virtues of falsification. Most simply, a hypothesis is proposed, and consequences are deduced, which are then tested ...
logic of discovery

logic of discovery  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The idea that there is any such thing as a ‘logic’ of scientific discovery has been a frequent object of attack, especially by philosophers of science influenced by Sir Karl Popper. There is usually ...
bootstrapping

bootstrapping  

Constructing a linear model of a judge's predictions of a criterion variable and then using the linear model instead of the judge to make further judgements or predictions. Such linear models ...
New Archaeology

New Archaeology  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]A movement that began in America in the 1960s, aimed at making archaeology more scientific, with explicit theory and rigorous methodologies. At the heart of the thinking was a positivist belief ...
Novum Organum

Novum Organum  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A Latin treatise on scientific method, which F. Bacon included in his Instauratio Magna (1620). This ‘great renewal’ of natural philosophy (which Bacon never completed) involved a systematic ...
falsifiability

falsifiability  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A principle on which the advance of science is based, that relies on the process of finding evidence that a scientific finding, belief, or theory is false. It is elucidated in the writings of the ...
Cambridge philosophy

Cambridge philosophy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
In the Middle Ages Cambridge was a good deal smaller than Oxford and produced no philosopher to compare with Oxford's Duns Scotus or Ockham. Francis Bacon was the first important ...
induction

induction  

1 A form of reasoning, also called empirical induction, in which a general law or principle is inferred from particular instances that have been observed. Many people believe that this form of ...
William Stanley Jevons

William Stanley Jevons  

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(1835–82)British political economist and logician. Jevons was educated at London, and taught at Manchester and London. He wrote various works on logic, and in 1870 exhibited a ‘logical piano’ or ...
experiment

experiment  

A scientific study in which the investigator deliberately alters some of the conditions of whatever is being observed in order to study the effects of making the alteration(s).
hypothesis

hypothesis  

A statement of the expected relationship between things being studied, which is intended to explain certain facts or observations. An idea to be tested.
scientific method

scientific method n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...method n . Another (less precise) name for the hypothetico-deductive method...

Deductive Logic

Deductive Logic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Deductive Logic Logic that predicts specific outcomes from prior general hypotheses— that is, it proceeds from the general to the particular. Logic based on derivation of necessary conclusions implied by explicit assumptions (premises), as in mathematics. See also hypothetico-deductive method ; inductive reasoning . ...

hypothesis

hypothesis n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . A tentative explanation for a phenomenon , subject to criticism by rational argument and refutation by empirical evidence. See also alternative hypothesis , hypothetico-deductive method , null hypothesis . Compare model , theory ( 2 ) . hypotheses pl . [From Greek hypo under + tithenai to...

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