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hospital

A repository of defective books (‘hospital copies’) and odd volumes maintained for the purpose of ‘making-up’ complete copies or sets. Although a resourceful mechanism for supplying ...

hospitalism

hospitalism n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . A term introduced in 1945 by the Austrian psychoanalyst René A(rpad) Spitz ( 1887–1974 ) to denote the physical and psychological effects on an infant (up to 18 months old) of prolonged and total separation from its mother, due to hospitalization or some other similar cause. According to Spitz, the characteristics include retarded physical development and disruption of perceptual–motor skills and language. See also anaclitic depression , attachment theory , maternal deprivation , separation anxiety , separation anxiety disorder...

hospitalism

hospitalism noun   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
15 words
hospitalism

hospitalism noun   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
15 words
hospitalism

hospitalism noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
32 words
hospitalism

hospitalism noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
35 words
hospitalism

hospitalism  

A term introduced in 1945 by the Austrian psychoanalyst René A(rpad) Spitz (1887–1974) to denote the physical and psychological effects on an infant (up to 18 months old) of prolonged and total ...
hospitals

hospitals   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35 words

... . Christian hospitals were founded from the 4th cent. onwards and became numerous in the Middle Ages, when they were commonly associated with monastic orders. Most medieval hospitals in England were almshouses for the...

Hospitals.

Hospitals.   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,459 words

...groups, and churches organized hospitals for the growing ranks of the needy sick. Religious and ethnic groups founded hospitals for religious and cultural reasons. Mullanphy Hospital in St. Louis, the first Roman Catholic hospital in the United States, was founded by the Sisters of Charity in 1828 ; German Jews in New York City organized Mount Sinai Hospital in 1852 . Hospitals mainly cared for the chronically ill, for whom the cultural aspects of daily hospital life were central. Religious hospitals rarely administrated distinctive therapeutics, but...

hospital

hospital n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
78 words

...hospital [ hos -pi-t’l] n. an institution providing medical or psychiatric care and treatment of patients. community h. a small hospital, which may be staffed by general practitioners, providing care for patients for whom home care is not practicable. day h. a hospital at which patients are under clinical supervision during the day but do not stay overnight. district general h. a hospital that provides sufficient basic services for the population of a health district. See also trust...

hospital

hospital n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
206 words

...hospitals have resources that are more highly specialized, to meet the needs of a wider population, providing so-called regional or supraregional ( national ) services. Such hospitals often provide training for medical students ( teaching or university hospitals ) and for postgraduate education. Some smaller hospitals – known as community hospitals – may be staffed by general practitioners and are intended for people for whom home care is not practicable on social grounds. Within the NHS, individual hospitals or groups of hospitals are generally part...

Hospital

Hospital   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Medieval Latin hospitale , from Latin hospitalis , a derivative of hospes , ‘guest’) The word was originally applied to a hospice or hostel for the reception of pilgrims. It later denoted a charitable institution for the aged and infirm (as in Greenwich Hospital, Chelsea Hospital), then charitable institutions for the education of children (as in Christ’s Hospital, Emmanuel Hospital, Greycoat Hospital) and finally the present institutions for treatment of the sick and injured. ‘Hospital’, ‘hospice’, ‘hostel’ and ‘hotel’ are all related words. See...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...their own hospitals to offer professional opportunities denied elsewhere, but their hospitals were also organized to provide up-to-date medical care for African American patients who also faced discrimination at other hospitals. Early African American hospitals included Provident Hospital in Chicago ( 1891 ) and Douglass Hospital in Philadelphia ( 1895 ). As the number and size of hospitals increased during the late nineteenth century, so too did the number of physicians with hospital affiliations. More patients meant hospitals needed more hospital staff,...

hospital

hospital   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
58 words

... A repository of defective books (‘ hospital copies’) and odd volumes maintained for the purpose of ‘making-up’ complete copies or sets. Although a resourceful mechanism for supplying serviceable texts, the practice is now frowned on as potentially fraudulent. The *Antiquarian Booksellers Association Code requires all such ‘sophistications’ be clearly indicated. See also made-up copy . Laurence...

hospitals

hospitals   Reference library

A. S. Hargreaves

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
670 words

...from the general hospitals and sent to peripheral town sites such as lock hospitals. Treatment was free, but patients had to conform to strict rules and assist when convalescent. As towns grew, the number and size of hospitals increased, while less-established practitioners set up new institutions such as dispensaries. Entrepreneurs challenged traditional patterns with specialized establishments (Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital), supported by new explanations of disease; the initial hostility of the general hospitals lessened as they...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the construction of marine hospitals. These hospitals proved to be underutilized by navy sailors. According to an 1810 report, only one-fifth of the patients at Boston Marine Hospital and one-ninth of those at Norfolk Marine Hospital belonged to the U.S. Navy. Several navy surgeons preferred to make temporary hospitals at the new system of navy yards rather than to send the sick and injured to marine hospitals. Medical facilities at navy shipyards may have had lower desertion rates, but they were hardly ideal hospitals. Captain Isaac Chauncey (...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Nicole Howard

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...century, hospitals had become sites of medical instruction and innovation where a much broader segment of the population could seek care. The economic, educational, and administrative structure of America’s current hospitals owes much to the hospitals of the Enlightenment. Further Reading Franklin, Benjamin . Some Account of the Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, 1754; repr. edn, Baltimore, 1954). Freidson, Eliot . The Hospital in Modern Society (New York, 1963). Risse, Guenter B. Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals (New...

Hospitallers

Hospitallers   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
305 words

... Theodore I Palaiologos sold Corinth to the Hospitallers in 1397 and the rest of the despotate in 1400 . The Hospitallers successfully defended the Isthmus of Corinth against the Turks, but withdrew by 1403 , at least in part because of the hostility of the local Greeks. By 1404 Theodore had recovered all of the despotate from the Hospitallers. HC 3:278–321. A. Luttrell , The Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West 1291–1440 (London 1978). Idem , Latin Greece, the Hospitallers and the Crusades, 1291–1440 (London 1982). Barker , ...

hospitals

hospitals   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
318 words

...hospitals . Christian hospitals were founded throughout E. Christendom from the 4th cent. onwards, and became exceedingly numerous in W. Europe during the earlier Middle Ages, when they were commonly associated with the monastic orders. From the earliest times different types were instituted to meet different problems, e.g. those of orphans, the sick, the aged, and the impotent poor. With some notable exceptions, e.g. St Bartholomew's Hospital, London (begun 1123 ), the medieval hospitals of England were for the most part almshouses for the aged. By the...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,621 words

...and a champion of hospital reform. Stewart, Ferdinand Campbell . The Hospitals and Surgeons of Paris: An Historical and Statistical Account of the Civil Hospitals of Paris . New York: J. & H. G. Langley; Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1843. Personal account of the Paris hospital system at the height of its fame. Tenon, Jacques . Memoirs on Paris Hospitals (1788). Edited by Dora B. Weiner. Canton, Mass.: Science History Publications, 1996. Translation of Mémoires sur les hôpitaux de Paris, the basic reference work concerning French hospital reform. Secondary...

hospital

hospital   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,027 words

...(at British voluntary institutions such as St. George's Hospital in London and the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh). John Aikin , who considered the hospitalized sick poor as ideally suited for “experimental practice,” and John Howard , a widely traveled prison and hospital reformer, were early leaders of this hospital movement. The conversion of hospitals into instruments of medicine acquired greater momentum in the nineteenth century. European hospitals linked to local universities such as Guys Hospital in London, the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris, and the...

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