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hockey

Claims a very ancient pedigree since there are tomb‐drawings and classical reliefs showing men hitting a ball with curved sticks. Like most games, it was formalized and regulated in the ...

Hockey

Hockey   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... A game having inevitable associations with girls’ schools. The hockey stick became the militant symbol of the sporting schoolgirl, and ‘jolly hockeysticks’ ( see under jolly ) was the slogan that epitomized her joie de sport as well as that of the games mistress who urged her to victory on the field. It should be mentioned that hockey to a North American implies ice hockey and that the game played on grass will need to be distinguished as field hockey...

hockey

hockey   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
123 words

... claims a very ancient pedigree since there are tomb-drawings and classical reliefs showing men hitting a ball with curved sticks. Variations were certainly played in the medieval period but, like most games, it was formalized and regulated in the 19th cent. Blackheath had a hockey club before 1861 and Teddington introduced the hard ball into the game in the 1870s. The National Association was formed in 1886 , mainly by London clubs, and the first women’s hockey club was founded at Wimbledon in 1889 . Wales played Ireland in 1895 and men’s hockey...

hockey

hockey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
199 words

...later withdrawal of troops accelerated hockey's decline. However the provision of new facilities in Dublin from 1934 led to a resurgence. The Second World War isolated Irish hockey, but provided only a short‐term impediment. Despite financial crises in the sport local league and cup competitions continued to flourish, especially in Dublin and Ulster. Women's hockey has developed in parallel to the men's game. The Irish Ladies' Hockey Union was formed in 1894 , following a representative game against England. Hockey is currently the most popular women's...

hockey

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
116 words

... ( field hockey ) Game played by two teams of 11 players, in which a hooked stick is used to strike a small, solid ball into the opponents' goal. The field of play classically measures 91.47 × 54.9m (300 × 180ft), usually grassed. There are two 35-minute halves. To score, a player must be within the semi-circle marked out in front of the goal. Body contact is forbidden and a ball cannot be hit above shoulder height. The modern game dates from the formation of the English Hockey Association in 1875 , and has been an Olympic sport since 1908 . Recent...

hockey

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
72 words

... claims a very ancient pedigree since there are tomb‐drawings and classical reliefs showing men hitting a ball with curved sticks. Like most games, it was formalized and regulated in the 19th cent. Blackheath had a hockey club before 1861 and Teddington introduced the hard ball into the game in the 1870s. The National Association was formed in 1886 , mainly by London clubs. The Federation of International Hockey was established in 1924...

hockey

hockey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
462 words

...for the prize. During the first two decades of the 20th century, an exclusively amateur brand of hockey in Canada increasingly gave way to emerging professional teams and leagues, beginning with the International Hockey League ( 1904 ), the Eastern Canadian Hockey League ( 1906 ), the National Hockey Association ( 1909 ), the Pacific Coast League ( 1912 ), and the National Hockey League ( 1917 ). Without a doubt the nhl was the premier professional hockey league in North America, and by the Second World War was solidly ensconced in Montreal, Toronto, Boston,...

hockey

hockey   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Hockey or field hockey was once played exclusively on grass and was a relatively slow, tactical game in which players tended to confine their activities to certain areas of the pitch. The introduction of artificial turf has transformed the game, making it much faster with play moving quickly from one end of the pitch to the other. Players require high levels of fitness to keep up with the game and to ensure that their ball-hitting skills do not break down when they become tired. So, in addition to improving individual skill work (dribbling, shooting, and...

roller hockey

roller hockey   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
198 words

...hockey A five-a-side stick-and-ball game combining elements of ice hockey and field hockey . It is played on roller-skating rinks and also known, in Europe, as rink-hockey. Introduced in London in the later 1870s, its first international fixture was between British and French teams at the Paris Hippodrome in 1910 , won by the Crystal Palace Engineers club. An Amateur Rink Hockey Association had been formed in the UK in 1908 . A European championship was inaugurated at Herne Bay, Kent, England, in 1926 , and Britain won the first world championship...

hockey stick

hockey stick   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
158 words

...hockey stick A reconstruction of temperatures over the past 1 000 years that was given prominence in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report. The hockey stick has a long flat handle showing roughly constant temperatures in the pre-industrial period, but it has a sharp 20th-century uptick which was seen as the confirmation of global warming. The hockey stick was constructed from a principal components analysis of proxy data (such as tree rings and ice cores). A generous assessment would say the methodology behind the...

hockey, field

hockey, field   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
439 words

... 2004 ) shared the gold medals at the succeeding seven tournaments. The International Hockey Federation had been formed in Paris in 1924 , prompted by the omission of hockey from that year's Olympic programme (Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon). Its founding members were Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Spain, and Switzerland, and before the next Olympics, Denmark, Holland, Germany, and India joined the federation. In 1970 the English Hockey Association (founded in 1886 in London) also joined the international federation, and...

ice hockey

ice hockey   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
543 words

...hockey A team sport played on ice comprising six players per team, originating in Canada and growing to one of the four most prominent professional team sports in North America, where the sport is known simply as hockey. Veterans of the Crimean War are said to have played a game with a puck, rather than a ball, on the frozen waters of Kingston Harbour, Ontario, in 1860 . British troops were also reported to have played the game at Halifax, Nova Scotia, at around the same time. Rules were formulated in 1879 by students at McGill University, Montreal, and a...

ice hockey

ice hockey   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
162 words

...hockey Sport on an oval ice rink in which two teams of six players wearing ice skates (and protective clothing) use sticks to propel a vulcanized rubber disc (puck) into the opponents' goal. The rink is usually 61m × 26m (200ft × 85ft) and is evenly divided into three zones - attacking, neutral and defending - each 18.3m (60ft) long. The goals are within the playing area, 3 to 4m (10–15ft) from each back line. Games consist of three 20-minute periods of timed play. Substitutions are allowed at any time, and the game is controlled by a referee and two...

“Hockey Stick”

“Hockey Stick”   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,842 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hockey Stick” The term “hockey stick” has been used to describe the shape of the curve defined by the large-scale temperature trends of the past millennium. This curve resembles in some respects the sport implement of the same name (see Figure 1 ). The long-term decline of temperatures from the relatively moderate conditions of medieval times to the relatively cool conditions of the Little Ice Age forms the “shaft” of the hypothetical hockey stick. The distinct, abrupt modern warming constitutes the “blade.” The term hockey stick in this particular context was...

Hockey, Field

Hockey, Field   Reference library

Mila C. SU

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
2,470 words

...offenses, as well as check equipment including sticks, goals, field, uniforms, and lineups. Field hockey uses what is called a “mandatory experiment” to test, for a time, a proposed change that the Hockey Rules Board has included in the Rules of Hockey. Until it becomes an official rule, all members of all hockey federations must play by this rule. Indoor Hockey Not to be confused with street hockey, floor hockey, or floorball, indoor hockey is field hockey moved inside. It has been in existence at least five decades, serving as a way for players to continue...

hockey stick

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... stick A graph published in Nature on 23 April 1998 ( Mann, M. E. , Bradley, R. S. , and Hughes, M. K. , ‘Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries,’ Nature , 1998 ; 392: 779–87) that showed global temperatures fluctuating but with no overall rise or fall from 1400 until the 20th century, when they rise sharply, the complete curve resembling an ice-hockey stick. The graph purported to show temperatures rising at an unprecedented rate during the latter part of the 20th century and was used widely by the ...

ice hockey

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Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...hockey Ice hockey was played by Native Americans as long ago as the 1600s, but the first recorded match in its modern form took place in Montreal in 1875 . In 2015 , more than 700,000 Canadians registered as ice hockey players with the country’s federation; these included juniors and adult males and females. Ice hockey is an extremely fast and tough sport, demanding high levels of all-round fitness. Professional players can skate at speeds in excess of 30 mph and even young skaters reach speeds of 20 mph. Puck speeds range from 50 mph to more than 120 mph,...

Hockey, Ice

Hockey, Ice   Reference library

Laura Frances CHASE and Mila C. SU

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
4,479 words

...in the game of ice hockey. Many recreational men’s leagues also prohibit the use of body checking. Most women’s, youth, and collegiate hockey leagues require players to wear a full cage on their helmets to protect the face and head. All ice hockey games are played on the full-size hockey rink, although rink size varies between Europe and North America. There is also a version of ice hockey that was developed for athletes with a disability. Sledge hockey is played on a regulation ice hockey rink and incorporates many of the rules of ice hockey. It is played on an...

hockey-stick growth

hockey-stick growth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
27 words

...-stick growth Very rapid exponential growth, in which a graph of, for example, revenue or visitors to a website against time is shaped like a hockey...

Hockey, In-Line

Hockey, In-Line   Reference library

Richard GRAHAM

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
1,249 words

...“ Hockey, Ice ,” for more details on the rules of ice hockey.) Ice hockey has three established zones: defensive, neutral, and offensive, defined by the two blue lines and a red line at center ice. In-line hockey only uses two zones, separated by a center red line. While ice hockey has an offsides rule, where the puck must precede the attacking player into the offensive zone, most in-line hockey leagues do not call offsides, thus opening up the game for more scoring and excitement. Many of in-line hockey’s first facilities were recreational roller hockey...

Hockey Stick Illusion, The

Hockey Stick Illusion, The   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Stick Illusion, The A book by A. W. Montford (Stacey International, London, 2010 ), subtitled Climategate and the Corruption of Science , that describes the work of those who exposed the errors in the data and statistical methods behind the hockey stick graph, thereby discrediting it, and also the significance of ‘Climategate’...

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