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history

Subject: Linguistics

History repeats itself comment on circumstances that replicate a previous situation; proverbial saying, mid 19th century. The comment was wryly extended by Rupert Brooke, in a letter of ...

history

history   Quick reference

Matthew Kilburn

Dictionary Plus History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
107 words

...history The study of the human past from written, visual, and spoken sources in order to describe or explain the causes and consequences of events. The reasons and aims of historical study have varied within and between societies and eras: for example, medieval Europeans saw the study of the past in terms of uncovering God’s plan for humanity. The ancient Greek writers Herodotus and Thucydides are traditionally seen as the founders of the historical method, though a distinct tradition based on discerning cyclical patterns in history emerged in China. Modern...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...History ‘Labour history’ is an expression with three main meanings. It is the history of labour institutions and movements; the history of the working class; and a notion of labour history as a challenge to History Proper—a historical struggle, as it were, analogous to ‘class struggle’. These strands are often separate, but the best work can combine them. It has been argued, for example, that it is difficult to write intelligible institutional history in the absence of a social history of the class , because the latter contains the key to the former's...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...History The exploration of documentary sources by which to establish and prove the relationships set out in a pedigree (in earlier times usually for legal purposes), the later development of the writing of family history, and more recently the relating of that history to the social and economic history of the time, has been a slow process over a long period. Although the Saxons produced fictitious pedigrees linking Irish and British traditional genealogies with those of the Bible and classical antiquity, whose fullest development was seen in the British...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the environment. See T. C. Smout , Nature Contested: Environmental History in Scotland and Northern England since 1600 (2000). Scholarly debate now centres on how far an emphasis on economic history, viewed through estate records and official publications, has produced an optimistic picture that obscures the sufferings of the rural poor. The developing interest in social history has led some historians—notably those associated with the journals History Workshop and Rural History —to offer a different picture, focused on rural protest. See, for...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and Pat Hudson , ‘ Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution ’, Economic History Review , 2nd ser., 45/1 (1992). An early interest was the history of technology. The Science Museum, London, was founded in 1857 with objects displayed at the Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace six years previously; see, for example, the Rhys Jenkins Collection of 177 boxes of notes on technical history. The Newcomen Society, the world's oldest learned society devoted to the study of the history of engineering and technology, was founded in 1920 and published its first ...

History Wars

History Wars   Quick reference

Kenneth Morgan

Dictionary Plus History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
104 words

... Wars Since the mid-1980s Australia has been subject to the ‘History Wars’ in which authors take sides about whether Australian history should mainly be interpreted in a positive or a negative light. The ‘History Wars’ have occurred in a context of anxieties over Australia’s Aboriginal past and policies concerning multiculturalism. Australia’s prime ministers participated in the ‘History Wars’. Labor’s Paul Keating set out an agenda for a ‘Reconciled Republic’ while the Liberal’s John Howard advanced Anzac nationalism and refused to make a national...

Social history

Social history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,555 words

...that ‘Social history might be defined negatively as the history of a people with the politics left out … Without social history, economic history is barren and political history is unintelligible.’ This phrase ‘history with the politics left out’, which Trevelyan used deliberately as a negative characterisation, was to be used by subsequent radical historians to condemn him out of hand, to the severe loss of those who have not read his coruscating prose. In the 1960s, with the expansion of university education around the globe, that social history established...

Commissioned history

Commissioned history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,560 words

...( Gold and Paper , 1958 ), and local history ( A History of Camberwell , 1964 ) before returning to academia in the mid-1960s. Inglis became an academic but later wrote another commissioned history, This Is the ABC ( 1983 ). The boundaries between commissioned history and academic history have remained permeable, although the intrusion of the moonlighting academic sometimes caused resentment among other commissioned historians. Weston Bate , who was commissioned to write a local history of Ballarat in 1964 before he re-entered academia, wrote...

ecclesiastical history

ecclesiastical history   Reference library

Judith Champ

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
434 words

...ecclesiastical history developed alongside secular history and the recovery of patristic studies in the 19th cent. Owen Chadwick has described ecclesiastical history as the seed of general history, since historical consciousness first arose within the heritage of Christendom. Ecclesiastical history could be, and was, used by all sides for propaganda and was largely viewed in terms of division, reaction, and rationalization of ecclesiastical separatism. Christianity, being by its very nature historical, meant that some account of that history had to be given,...

School history

School history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
952 words

...a tension between the political and scientific aims of school history. Was history valuable mainly for the lessons it taught, or for the skills it instilled? By the 1960s and 1970s, the link between academic history and school history was growing weaker everywhere. ‘The history of a historian is not the history of an educator’, a Melbourne schoolteacher declared in 1976 . Academic historians were increasingly oriented to the international world of historical scholarship, while school history was being ‘integrated’—some said submerged—in a general social...

Local history

Local history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,485 words

...since 1970 , as have the numbers of published local histories. Carol Beaumont has published a valuable bibliography of local histories in Victoria ( 1980 ); Christine Eslick and others of NSW; and Ros Paterson of SA ( 1989 ). Some recent experiments in local history writing involve the locals themselves more fully in the process of making their own history. Janet McCalman's Struggletown (1984) is the history of a place—the Melbourne working-class suburb of Richmond—as well as an Oral history of the generation who grew up there between the wars....

Gay history

Gay history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
898 words

...history is a relatively new field of investigation, closely linked to the development of a gay rights movement. Indeed, it was the activism of gay liberationists in the early 1970s which opened up gay history as an area of study. This close relationship between gay history and gay politics has continued. Gay history does not simply reflect a homosexual past; it is perhaps more a reflection of current homosexual hopes of what it might mean to be gay. The first texts of gay history appeared in the years immediately following Gay Liberation. Jonathan Katz ...

Lesbian history

Lesbian history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
683 words

...history , like Women's history , Feminist history , Aboriginal history , and Gay history , has both reflected and informed the demand that differences among people be recognised and valued. Writings in Australian history, whether produced in the past or the present, have almost without exception assumed the naturalness of heterosexuality. As a consequence, lesbians and their experiences have been rendered non-existent, irrelevant, or unworthy of attention. The women's liberation and gay liberation movements of the late 1960s and 1970s provided impetus...

urban history

urban history   Reference library

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
486 words

...history can be defined variously. Histories of individual British towns have been written for over four centuries; studies of towns and urbanization in general came later; while as an academic discipline British urban history is no more than 40 years old. An interest in the history and antiquities of towns can be traced back to Anglo-Saxon times, and by the 13th cent. London had civic annals. From the end of the 16th cent. true urban histories started to appear, the first published being John Stow ’s Survey of London ( 1598 ). Between the 17th and 19th...

Sporting history

Sporting history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
783 words

...by history. The sources for sporting history, as observed by Bill Mandle in New History in 1982 , are not to be found in the Blue Books. Little sporting history bears the mark of archival investigation; rather, it relies on newspapers, sporting magazines, journalism, and ephemera. Much of the documentary and material evidence of sport history is located not in libraries and archives but within museums . From the early 1970s museums in Australia recognised the importance of collecting and curating sporting history as part of the new social history....

Oral history

Oral history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,153 words

...Patsy Adam-Smith 's series of popular histories. The areas tending to dominate in both oral history collections and publications are migration and ethnic community histories, work by and with indigenous peoples, the working class in particular industries or occupations, and local histories. Feminist historians in Australia have been slower to utilise oral history in their research, despite a large number of community projects exploring aspects of women's experience in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the 1970s the oral history movement has combined a strong...

Big History

Big History   Reference library

David CHRISTIAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,663 words

... Big History and World History There is a natural affinity between world history and big history. Big history considers the past at such huge scales that it can attempt, as more conventional types of history cannot, to understand the trajectory of human history as a whole. Because of its willingness to draw on information from multiple disciplines, it is not confined, as traditional “Rankean” forms of scholarship were, to the several millennia since the appearance of writing. It therefore provides a natural framework for the type of world history that will...

Women's history

Women's history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,536 words

...Prior to the 1970s the staff of Australian history departments, as elsewhere, was largely male; and women featured little, if at all, in early works on Australian history. Margaret Kiddle , of the University of Melbourne History Department, was a notable exception on both counts. Though never promoted beyond senior tutor, she wrote both a biography of the nineteenth-century social reformer Caroline Chisholm and a social history of pastoralist families in western Victoria which acknowledged more fully the role of women. The Social Science Research Council...

Labour history

Labour history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,682 words

...powerful insights into the history of work and class relations in Australia. Labour history is now so diffuse that it is difficult to identify any unifying feature. In Bede Nairn and Labour History , volume 3 (1991), Verity Burgmann argued that, despite its sensitivity to inequalities in addition to class, labour history had experienced a ‘strange death’, because the rise of the new social movements and the apparent decline of the labour movement as an agent of change had made labour history less fashionable than social history. In response, Raelene...

Aboriginal history

Aboriginal history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,028 words

...on their own country and look after it. ‘Born in the Cattle’ also brought the new women's history and Aboriginal history together, giving a gendered analysis of Aboriginal labour, and focusing also on the sexual dynamics of race relations on the cattle stations. Though originating in a similar intellectual climate, women's history and gender relations history had at first been quite distinct from Aboriginal history. The founding Australian feminist histories of 1975 paid scant attention to race and ethnicity, or to the power relations and differences...

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