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Heresies

Art journal published from 1977 to 1993. Heresies: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics was created by a group of women who called themselves the Heresies Collective. These women ...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
21 words

... Denial of, or deviation from, orthodox religious belief. The concept exists in most organized religions with a rigid, dogmatic...

heresy

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
209 words

... . The formal denial or doubt of any defined doctrine of the Catholic faith. From early days the Church claimed teaching authority and consequently condemned heresy. The need to rebut heresy has sometimes stimulated the formulation of orthodox Christian doctrine. In the early centuries heresy was mainly a matter of erroneous attempts to understand the nature of the Person of Christ, of the Trinity, or both. After the Church had become a structured and wealthy institution, many of the heretical movements were inspired by a desire to return to what was seen...

heresy

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Gillian Clark

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
254 words

... The Greek word hairesis , ‘choice’ or ‘option’, was used for a school of thought in philosophy or medicine. Followers of one school often disagreed with the beliefs of other schools, but Christian authors are especially fierce in denouncing ‘heresy’. For them, hairesis is false belief about human beings in relation to God: it endangers the soul by departing from orthodoxia , ‘right thinking’, and it must be inspired by human arrogance or by demonic deception. Most information on heresies comes from opponents who listed and attacked them. Eusebius (...

heresy

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
121 words

... From the Greek, meaning ‘choice’ or ‘thing chosen’, or an opinion. It came to be used (in the Greek) for a sect or a school of philosophy, and of the ‘sects’ of the * Sadducees and the * Pharisees in Acts 5: 17; 15: 5. It is used by Paul for a protest group in * Corinth (1 Cor. 11: 19) and for a typical kind of divisive action in the * community (Gal. 5: 20), where the word is on its way to its later designation of a deviationist group within Christianity. By the end of the 1st cent. * Ignatius of * Antioch termed theological error a ‘heresy’...

heresy

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Paul Ladouceur

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
831 words

... (2 vols, Manchester, 1967). J. Le Goff (ed.), Hérésies et sociétés dans l’Europe pré-industrielle 11 e –18 e siècles (Civilisations et sociétés, 10; Berlin, 1968), bibl. of post-1900 studies on medieval heresies, 407–67. N. G. Garsoïn , ‘Byzantine Heresy : A Reinterpretation’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), 85–113. W. Lourdaux and D. Verhelst (eds), The Concept of Heresy in the Middle Ages (11th–13th C.) (Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, 1st ser., vol. 4; 1976). M. D. Lambert , Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from Bogomil to Hus (1977; 3rd...

Heresy

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A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
187 words

... The holding of beliefs contrary to the Jewish religion. Any attempt to study the phenomenon of heresy in Judaism has to take note of the differences in this matter between Judaism and the Christian Church. The various councils of the Church met in order to define Christian doctrine, any departure from which was seen as heresy. In Judaism, on the other hand, while there are Jewish dogmas , there has never been any officially accepted formulation of these, no meeting, say, of authoritative Rabbis, to decide what it is that Judaism teaches in matters of...

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
62 words

... Defined by the medieval church as ‘an opinion chosen by human perception, founded on the scriptures, contrary to the teaching of the Church, publicly avowed and obstinately defended’. It became a problem only when unorthodox opinion began to weaken the authority of the church itself, when responses included the Albigensian crusade of 1208 , and the foundation of the Inquisition in 1231...

heresy

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The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
211 words

... , heretical subjects Heresy is a formal denial and rejection of defined doctrine, and is therefore rare. For obvious reasons, it is difficult to know how many works of art have been destroyed because of heresy, but very few survive, and most are dubiously heretical. In the early period, from the 3rd century onwards, doctrine was still being defined, so that a variety of interpretations was legitimate—the catacombs or the Hypogeum of the Aurelii present problems of interpretation, many of which were deliberate, in order to mislead possible persecutors....

heresy

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J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
585 words

...of the social order, James ordering a burning in 1612 . In Scotland the laws against heresy were repealed by the Reformation Parliament of 1560 . In Charles II ’s reign, an Act of 1677 abolished the writ De heretico comburendo , but reiterated the right of ecclesiastical courts to punish heresy, short of death. Though persecution of laymen for heresy ceased, the careers of clerics and academics (in holy orders) could still be jeopardized by charges of heresy, and the offence of blasphemy remained dangerous. James Nayler , a quaker, was whipped,...

heresy

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The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... , the formal denial of a defined orthodox doctrine (the term comes from a Greek word meaning ‘choice’ or ‘thing chosen’), theological error. Throughout the Middle Ages a series of movements questioning points of doctrine or critical of ecclesiastical practice (often by contrast with an ideal of Apostolic poverty) were condemned as heresies. In Chaucer's England the most significant of these movements was that of Wyclif and his followers ( see Loller ; Lollards ). Chaucer uses the word only once, as part of the ecclesiastical vocabulary of the...

heresy

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Gillian Clark

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
289 words

... The Greek word hairesis , ‘choice’ or ‘option’, was used for a school of thought in philosophy or medicine. Followers of one school often disagreed with the beliefs of other schools, but Christian authors are especially fierce in denouncing ‘heresy’. For them, hairesis is false belief about human beings in relation to God: it endangers the soul by departing from orthodoxia , ‘right thinking’, and it must be inspired by human arrogance or by demonic deception. Most information on heresies comes from opponents who listed and attacked them. Eusebius (...

Heresy

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Timothy E. Gregory, Alexander Kazhdan, and Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,231 words

...for their adversaries. Works on heresies developed into a common genre of Byz. theological literature (e.g., the Panarion of Epiphanios of Cyprus and Panoplia dogmatike of Euthymios Zigabenos ). The Synodikon of Orthodoxy was a regular liturgical condemnation of heresies. With the conversion of Constantine I the state became involved in the definition of and struggle against heresy, and the legal codes contain various penalties for heretical groups, frequently in ranked order, with more pernicious heresies treated more harshly.Church Councils...

Heresy

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Adam ben Shea

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,348 words

... Heresy By and large, there was a clear distinction between heresy and unbelief/rejection of Islam ( kufr ) in the Islamic tradition, although this might be violated by zealous opponents of some “heresy” or by temporal rulers eager to condemn “heretics” to death by accusing them of apostasy ( takfīr ). Within the Islamic tradition, there are several competing definitions of heresy that are dependent on definitions...

Heresy

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
569 words

... (Gk., hairesis , ‘choice’). The adoption of false views and practices. Basically, the Gk. word may mean simply the adoption of a particular opinion or school of thought (e.g. Acts 5.17), but in religious terms it is usually a choice of belief which is held to be aberrant (i.e. heretical) by the main continuing body of believers. A heresiarch is the originator of a heresy or heretical movement. In Christianity, where the term is essentially located, Roman Catholic theologians distinguish ‘formal heresy’ (the grave sin of wilful persistence in error) and...

Heresy

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Daniela MÜller

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,526 words

...succinctly demonstrated this restriction of meaning when he used heresy as an antonym for fides, veritas , and unitas , in order to characterize ‘heresy’ in opposition to ‘orthodoxy’. I. Heresy in Augustine's Thought Although Aug. admitted at the end of his life that it is difficult precisely to define heresy ( ep . 222.2; haer . praef. 7), he nevertheless...

HERESY

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
404 words

...the halakhah , matters of faith were not sufficiently systematized to permit the establishment of generally accepted categories of heresy ( see Creed ). In this respect, the attempt of Maimonides to lay down the Thirteen Principles of Faith , the denial of which would place those who rejected them outside the pale of Judaism, represented a departure from the Jewish norm and was not allowed to go unchallenged. Zeev Gries , “Heresy,” in Contemporary Jewish Religious Thought , edited by Arthur A. Cohen and Paul Mendes-Flohr (New York, 1987), pp....

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
153 words

... Belief in a doctrine held to be false by the Christian Church. During the Middle Ages it was believed to be necessary to follow the one ‘true’ religion, which provided the only guarantee of salvation and afterlife. Consequently those who came to believe that orthodox teaching was inadequate or wrong risked being declared heretics. Since the Church sought to maintain the unique validity of its declared doctrine conflict was inevitable. The early Church condemned Gnostics in the 2nd century and Arianism and the Nestorians in the 4th century. The Iconoclasts...

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
341 words

...persecution of heresy began. There was a marked revival of lollardy in the early 16th cent., which merged with the Lutheran heresy. Henry VIII repealed De heretico comburendo in 1533 but retained the right to burn heretics. Edward VI then repealed all statutes against heresy, though it remained an offence at common law. Mary at once revived the previous statutes and Elizabeth abolished them again in 1558 . In Scotland the laws against heresy were repealed by the Reformation Parliament in 1560 . Though persecution of laymen for heresy ceased, the...

Arian heresy

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
91 words

...heresy , Arianism Heresy of the Christian Church in the fourth century ad , named after its originator Arius, which taught that Jesus was subordinate to God, and not divine. A compromise with orthodoxy was reached at a council of 359 , which led St Jerome to describe that year as one in which ‘the whole world groaned and marvelled to find itself Arian’. After that, support for the heresy declined sharply (though remaining very strong among the Goths ) and orthodoxy was re-established at the Council of Constantinople in 391 . See also Constantine...

heresy, Jewish

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Peter Webb

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...sectarian to Christian entailed that the min /‘heretic’ was transported outside of the Jewish community, and the whole notion of minut /heresy, as Boyarin argues (44–5), became external to ‘Jewishness’ by the outset of the geonic period. Jewish religious identity became increasingly situated in genealogy, leaving scant conceptual space to divide Jews into heresies. Rabbinical writing would employ notions of ‘heresy’ to explore the theoretical boundaries of their own group of ‘textualists’ (Green); these writings laid the groundwork for much later...

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