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hand-stamped

‘Hand-stamped’, or simply ‘stamped’, means that the mark, device, or text in question has been applied to the document not by writing, but by means of a stamp: i.e. by ...

hand-stamped

hand-stamped   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
133 words

...-stampedHand-stamped’, or simply ‘stamped’, means that the mark, device, or text in question has been applied to the document not by writing, but by means of a stamp: i.e. by a hand-held instrument, most commonly of wood or rubber, designed to leave an impression of the mark, device, or text usually after exposure to ink. The most commonly encountered hand-stamped documents are letters or envelopes bearing stamped postal marks. If they bear dates, they can also be called ‘date-stamped’. From late medieval times onwards, however, various kinds of official...

hand-stamped

hand-stamped  

Reference type:
Overview Page
‘Hand-stamped’, or simply ‘stamped’, means that the mark, device, or text in question has been applied to the document not by writing, but by means of a stamp: i.e. by ...
hand stamping

hand stamping   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
52 words

... stamping The practice of transferring text or image from a *relief surface by means of a handheld, inked stamp, used in a few MSS and early printed books to add *initials , *corrections , *signatures , *catchwords , and most notably *borders , the last especially in Venice in the early 1470s . Margaret M....

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...jewellery and other trinkets—of sound workmanship and in good taste. Through the division of his 800-strong labour force into workshops carrying out specialized tasks, he secured the firm's competitive edge. Water gave him the power to operate the rolling mills, lathes, and stamping and polishing machines essential for large-scale production. With these newly industrialized processes he exploited the invention of Sheffield plate—copper fused to a silver veneer—boosting the rate of production and lowering manufacturing costs. His friend Josiah Wedgwood...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Company, were abolished and its forts were taken over by the Crown. The demise of the Royal African Company was also testimony to the force of the *abolitionist movement which drew the British government more and more into the internal workings of its colonies in order to stamp out the slave trade. In combating the slave trade the British state's main agency was the Colonial Office. Under Lord Bathurst 's supervision from 1812 to 1827 , this established a reputation and routines which gradually enabled the British government to exercise a more direct...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...he argued that the total design of every building—from its plan and façade down to the smallest ornamental detail—should uniformly express the building's unique, specific purpose or character. The concept of character appealed at a number of levels. It bore the prestigious stamp of contemporary French theory, an important consideration for Soane. More importantly, it addressed the need for ideological representations of social hierarchy by creating distinctive architectural expressions for every type of institution and building, high and low, new and old,...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Christianity, together with the rights of man and socialist mutuality; ‘All for each—each for all’: Ye nobles of nature, ye scions of fame, Ye foremost in liberty's van, Hoist your standard aloft, and loudly proclaim The duties and rights of man. When nature first stamped us with life and with form It was at equality's shrine; Truth, justice, and reason, united, conform, to hallow the sacred design … Our motto is equal rights and laws Our call is freedom's call Our cause, the cause, the common cause, All for each—each for all No one imperially...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...surface area to promote bonding. In the earliest European mills, this process was performed using either kollergangs or stamping mills. Kollergangs were large millstones set on their rims, running in a stone trough; they twisted and crushed batches of fibres without cutting them, in a way similar to milling grain or pressing oilseed. The other process involved pounding the wet fibres with large wooden hammers shod with nails; these ‘stampers’ tended to flatten fibres and break their outer layers, resulting in more fibrillation than kollergangs. Both processing...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...type. Type was cast by hand. First, the matrix for each letter was placed in succession in a two-part mould, which expanded or contracted to suit the letter’s width. Next, a ladle was used to pour molten metal into the mould; a rapid upward thrust of the hands while holding the mould ensured that the metal reached the image of the type stamped in the matrix before it cooled. The process of typefounding involved diecasting in an alloy of lead, a cheap and plentiful metal with a low melting-point, which enabled it to be safely used with hand-held devices. The...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...international *copyright , but British authors remained unprotected in the colonial and American markets for most of the century. The British government derived income from the book trade by means of the stamp tax ( see stamp acts ). Increasingly, this was seen to stifle the freedom of the press and the circulation of knowledge. The last stamp tax was repealed in 1855 and the excise tax on paper in 1861 . The economics of the book in the second half of the 19 th century have been succinctly characterized: ‘the period from 1846 to 1916 saw a...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...with a distinctive twist of their own, making them recognizably intended for binding decoration. Tanned leather bindings have usually been decorated by building up patterns with heated metal tools, leaving a permanent impression in the surface. Tools may be small individual stamps, large blocks, or wheels with an engraved design around the rim, and are run along a cover to create a continuous line of ornament ( *fillets and rolls). For greater visual impact, tools can be applied through a thin layer of gold leaf, leaving a gilt rather than a *blind ...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...a date and a brief statement about the book and its contents. The cover page was fundamentally a commercial advertisement with appended statements by the publisher, and many were bound into the books, preserving their valuable data. The cover page sometimes contained a hand-stamped price or a distinctive seal impression meant as a trademark, and it was common to print pseudo- *copyright statements such as fanke bijiu (‘unauthorized reprints will be investigated’), which were utterly ineffectual. However, it all ended unceremoniously for the most...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...average of 300 copies per issue, the total annual output would have amounted to just below half a million copies. In 1750 , the proprietors of the London titles, with the representatives of a widening circle of local papers, purchased about 7.5 million tax stamps, a number rising annually ( see stamp acts ; taxes on knowledge ). The acceleration of output in the 19 th century—linked directly to developments in the technology of print ( see 11 ), as well as to the repeal of taxes—ushered in the mass market of the next century. The Daily Mail became...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...College, Dublin), datable to about the end of the 8 th century, and the *Lindisfarne Gospels (British Library), datable to about 710. All such works may be seen as vehicles for illustration, albeit entirely hand-drawn and *illuminated . In Europe, printing from woodblocks was known by the 12 th century, but it was originally employed only for stamping designs on to textiles. The earliest surviving prints on paper are not datable before the final years of the 14 th century. 2 The age of woodcut Among the earliest European woodcuts to bear a date is a...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...this form of trade protection was all that was available until the first Copyright Act came into being. During the 18 th century, various legal remedies were tried to regulate the trade, including laws on copyright, trade protectionism, and taxation ( see taxes on knowledge ; stamp acts ). The lapse of the Printing Act was also the end of licensing, and taxes on printed matter, introduced in 1711 and later extended, became the means of regulating access to print. They continued until the mid-19 th century. By raising the price of newspapers and print,...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...believers for their devotions and studies. Sponsors supported hand-copying and, later, printing of scriptures; the names of such benefactors are sometimes recorded in *colophons or other notes to the texts. During the Three Kingdoms, United Silla, and Koryŏ ( 918–1392 ) periods, all such copies were in Chinese characters, since classical Chinese was accepted as the written language of palace, court, and temple. Finely produced temple copies of such texts as the *Diamond and Lotus Sutras, stamped images of the Buddha, and copies of incantations and chants...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to Kolozsvár, he brought together municipal and church presses, and in the next nine years published more than 100 finely printed inexpensive books, including the scholarly works of Ferenc Pápai Páriz, the scientist and compiler of a Latin–Hungarian dictionary. Kis strove to stamp out illiteracy and cultural backwardness and to develop a uniform Hungarian orthography. In Transylvania the princes Gábor Bethlen (r. 1613–29 ) and György Rakóczi I (r. 1630–48 ) sought to deprive indigenous Romanians of their national rights and to convert them to Calvinism....

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...school books for vernacular reading instruction, such as James Greenwood ’s London Vocabulary ( 1711? ), were typically bound in tanned *sheepskin stretched over *boards (with or without *endleaves ), in undyed *canvas boards, or in sheepskin with a row of scallops stamped parallel to the *spine . Colourful embossed *Dutch gilt-paper *wrappers or boards are the hallmark of ‘entertaining little books’ for younger children, such as The History of Little Goody Two Shoes ( 1765 ). Works of serious fiction, history, natural history, and school...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...audience in The Netherlands did not come about until the second half of the 19 th century. This was the era when, among many other factors, the mechanization and industrialization of production in printing and related activities finally got off the ground ( see 11 ), the old stamp duty on newspapers and journals was abolished ( 1869 ), the quality of primary and secondary education was drastically improved, working hours of labourers were reduced and their wages increased, and the first steps were taken on the road to the liberation of women. Annual book...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...brought the best contemporary writers to American audiences. Insisting that they believed in publishing meritorious works whether or not they would sell, they were particularly hospitable to European literary modernism. Knopf nevertheless was aggressive in marketing books, stamping a recognizable personality on them: he put men in sandwich boards to publicize Floyd Dell’s Moon-Calf ( 1921 ), was the first publisher to use photographs in testimonial advertisements, and devised slogans that resembled those for household products. New publishers’ openness...

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