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halakhah

Subject: Religion

The legal side of Judaism, in contradistinction to Aggadah; the latter embracing all the non-legal ideas. In the earliest Rabbinic period, the term Halakhah (from the root halakh, ‘to go’ ...

Halakhah

Halakhah   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
95 words

... (Heb., from halak , ‘he went’). A particular law or the whole Jewish legal system. The halakhah is traditionally believed to go back in its entirety to Moses . The halakhah is composed of the written law (the six hundred and thirteen commandments of the Pentateuch ), the statements handed down by tradition (such as the words of the prophets and the hagiographa ( Writings ), the oral law (which includes interpretations of the written law), the sayings of the scribes , and established religious custom. Written law is Torah she-bi-khetav ,...

Halakhah

Halakhah   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
341 words

... The legal side of Judaism, in contradistinction to Aggadah ; the latter embracing all the non-legal ideas. In the earliest Rabbinic period, the term Halakhah (from the root halakh , ‘to go’ or ‘to walk’) was confined to a particular ruling or decision. But, subsequently, while the original meaning was retained, the term Halakhah was also and chiefly used for the whole system. The Halakhah came to denote that aspect of Judaism which is concerned with Jewish law as a whole; the rules and regulations by which the Jew ‘walks’ through life. In every...

halakhah

halakhah   Reference library

CTR Hayward

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
143 words

... (Heb. הֲלָכָה ‎, ‘that by which one walks’) In rabbinic Judaism, the body of teachings concerning religious obligation in contrast to Haggadah. Its main sources are the Hebrew Bible, Talmud , medieval codifications (the last and most authoritative being the Shulchan Aruch or ‘Prepared Table’ of Joseph Caro, first published in 1565), and the vast body of responsa , formal answers to questions posed to halakhic authorities. In modern Judaism the status of halakhah constitutes one of the principal points of disagreement between Orthodox Judaism on the...

HALAKHAH

HALAKHAH   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,472 words

...the State. Custom. In the Talmud, custom ( minhag ) constitutes a means of resolving halakhic disputes in ritual matters ( Ber . 45a; Pes . 66a) and is a source of halakhah in commercial and civil law ( B.M . 74a). The principle that “custom overrides halakhah ” is found only in the Jerusalem Talmud and is restricted to civil law. Customs in the ritual sphere that have no basis in halakhah ought, nevertheless, to be respected, provided that they do not conflict with any halakhic norm. Among the medieval authorities, R. Yaʿaqov ben Me’ir Tam stands out as...

halakhah

halakhah   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
532 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (Jewish law) Viewed by Jewish tradition as the major governing authority for the Jewish community and a manifestation of divine revelation mediated through the *exegesis of sacred texts, halakhah (derived from the Hebrew word ‘to go’) concerns itself with all aspects of Jewish life. The primary sources of Jewish law are divided between the ‘Written Law’, traditionally understood as commandments located in the biblical text, and the ‘Oral Law’, the interpretive complement to the Written Law understood to have been nonetheless divinely revealed and...

Halakhah and Ethics

Halakhah and Ethics   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
294 words

...1965). Lawrence Kaplan , “ Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik’s Philosophy of Halakhah ,” Jewish Law Annual 7 (1988): 139–197. A. Lichtenstein , “Does Jewish Tradition Recognize an Ethic Independent of Halakhah?” in Jewish Law and Legal Theory , edited by Martin Golding (Aldershot, 1994), pp. 155–182. David Novak , “Natural Law, Halakhah and the Covenant,” Jewish Law Annual 7 (1988): 43–67. Joel Roth , The Halakhah: Systemic Analysis (New York, 1986). Efraim E. Urbach , The Halakhah: Its Sources and Development (Tel Aviv, 1986). –DANIEL...

TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH

TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
851 words

...AND HALAKHAH . The interaction between modern technology and Jewish law is a complex issue that covers at least three distinct activities: the legal responses to changes in technology; the scientific responses to some unique legal problems that can be realized through technological advances; and the challenges posed to the underpinnings of Jewish law, philosophy, and ethics by certain modern scientific advances. Legal Responses to Technology Jewish law directs its adherents’ conduct on a wide variety of issues, and advances in technology change the...

HALAKHAH LE-MOSHE MI-SINAI

HALAKHAH LE-MOSHE MI-SINAI   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
157 words

... LE-MOSHE MI-SINAI ( a law [transmitted orally] to Moses from [Mount] Sinai), laws regarded by the Talmud, while never stated explicitly in scripture or derived from it, as having biblical authority. Since a number of these laws were clearly post-Mosaic, some medieval commentators noted that the term was also used to describe laws that were beyond any doubt, as if they had been given to Moses at Sinai. Shemu’el Safrai has shown that early rabbinic literature did not recognize a special category of laws given to Moses at Sinai and that the term is nothing...

halakhah

halakhah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The legal side of Judaism, in contradistinction to Aggadah; the latter embracing all the non-legal ideas. In the earliest Rabbinic period, the term Halakhah (from the root halakh, ‘to go’ or ‘to ...
Technology and Halakhah

Technology and Halakhah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The interaction between modern technology and Jewish law is a complex issue that covers at least three distinct activities: the legal responses to changes in technology; the scientific responses to ...
Halakhah Le-Moshe Mi-Sinai

Halakhah Le-Moshe Mi-Sinai  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
( a law [transmitted orally] to Moses from [Mount] Sinai), laws regarded by the Talmud, while never stated explicitly in scripture or derived from it, as having biblical authority. Since ...
2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

Carl Olson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Torah). In addition, Rabbinic Judaism gave birth to the Talmud, containing analysis and elaboration of rabbinic lore ( aggadah ), which is prominent in the collection known as the Midrash that originated in the academies of Palestine and Babylonia. Within the Talmud, legal ( halakhah ) aspects dominate the text. 3 Formative Christian tradition The early Christian community did not possess its own sacred book, and any such notion would have probably struck its members as strange. It did, however, make use of the Hebrew Bible, although it tended to read...

The Bible in Judaism

The Bible in Judaism   Reference library

Philip Alexander

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...to be manipulated by the commentator apparently at will, as when the numerical value of the words is computed for exegetical purposes (a device known as gematria ). However, an important distinction is observed between the exposition of the legal parts of scripture (the Halakhah) and the exposition of the non-legal, narrative portions (the Aggadah). The former were treated much more conservatively, well within the range of techniques which one would expect sober jurisprudents to employ. The latter, however, can be subjected to extreme forms of...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Press). Sandmel, S. (1979), Philo of Alexandria: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press). Schechter, S. (1979), Aboth de Rabbi Nathan: Edited from Manuscripts with an Introduction, Notes and Appendices (repr. Hildesheim: Olms). Schiffman, L. H. (1975), The Halakhah at Qumran (Leiden: Brill). ——  (1989), The Eschatological Community of the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Study of the Rule of the Congregation (Atlanta: Scholars Press). Schwemer, A. M. (1997), Vitae Prophetarum (Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck]). Siegert, F. (1996), ‘Philo of Alexandria’,...

Kal va-homer

Kal va-homer  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Heb. ‘light and heavy’).Principle of determining Jewish halakhah: it means that what applies in a less important case will certainly apply in a more important one. The phrase has come to mean an ...
Jewish Law and Environmental Protection

Jewish Law and Environmental Protection  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Jewish law or halakhah is a living legal tradition whose history reaches back to ancient biblical times. Like any other system of law, the course of the halakhah's growth and ...
Mishpat ivri

Mishpat ivri  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Heb., ‘Hebrew law’).That portion of the Jewish halakhah which parallels the legal systems of secular nations. According to Article 46 of the Israeli constitution, in the event of a ...
Beit Din

Beit Din  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(; house of judgment), a court of law guided by the principles of recognized halakhah in dealing with matters of civil, criminal, or religious law. The command to appoint judges ...
Frankists

Frankists  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The followers of Jacob Frank (1726–91) in Podolia, south-east Poland, who formed themselves into a Shabbetean sect (see SHABBETAI ZEVI). Frank, a charismatic figure but also, by all accounts, ...
Posek

Posek  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A Jewish scholar who is concerned with practical halakhah. For an example of a much revered 20th-cent. posek, see FEINSTEIN, MOSHEH.

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