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guppy effect

An anomaly in prototype theory, in which an item is more prototypical of a conjunctive concept than of either (or any) of its constituent concepts. Thus a guppy is supposedly more ...

guppy effect

guppy effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... effect n . An anomaly in prototype theory , in which an item is more prototypical of a conjunctive concept than of either (or any) of its constituent concepts. Thus a guppy is supposedly more prototypical of the conjunctive concept pet fish than of either of the constituent concepts pet or fish , and if prototype theory is formulated in the theory of fuzzy sets , this leads to a contradiction, implying that either the apparently natural formulation in the theory of fuzzy sets, or prototype theory itself, must be fundamentally flawed. The concept...

guppy effect

guppy effect  

An anomaly in prototype theory, in which an item is more prototypical of a conjunctive concept than of either (or any) of its constituent concepts. Thus a guppy is supposedly more prototypical of the ...
fuzzy set

fuzzy set  

A generalized concept of a set in which elements have continuously graded degrees of set membership ranging from 0 to 1, rather than either not belonging (0) or belonging (1) as in conventional set ...
prototype theory

prototype theory  

A theory of concepts and concept formation introduced in 1973 by the US psychologist Eleanor Rosch (born 1938) to overcome problems inherent in the classical componential theory originally put ...
fuzzy set

fuzzy set n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... It was developed in 1965 by the Azerbaijani-born US engineer and systems theorist Lotfi A. Zadeh ( 1921–2017 ) to reflect the fact that many natural categories, such as baldness, tallness, and beauty, have intrinsically indistinct boundaries. See also fuzzy logic , guppy effect , prototype theory...

prototype theory

prototype theory n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...instances and a minimum number with instances of other concepts. Thus a prototype consists of characteristic features rather than defining properties, and according to this interpretation concepts have indistinct boundaries and may be represented by fuzzy sets (but see guppy effect ). If an item is clearly similar to a prototype, as table is to the prototypical furniture , then it is likely to be perceived as belonging to the concept, whereas if it is somewhat (but not entirely) dissimilar to the prototype, as carpet is to furniture , then it may...

Life History Theory

Life History Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,243 words
Illustration(s):
4

...through an indirect effect of the predators may be contributing to the interpopulation differences in life histories (Reznick et al., 2001 ). Density-dependent selection can also play a role in the evolution of the life history strategies (Charlesworth, 1994 ). Density manipulations of guppies in natural streams indicate that this form of selection may also be contributing to the life history differences. Intriguing results of Reznick's studies are the discrepancies between the phenotypes of the field-caught and lab-reared guppies. For example, newborn...

Signalling Theory

Signalling Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Vehrencamp . Principles of Animal Communication . Sunderland, Mass., 1998. A comprehensive survey of the study of animal signals and their evolution. Endler, J. A. “ Variation in the Appearance of Guppy Colour Patterns to Guppies and Their Predators under Different Visual Conditions. ” Vision Research 31 (1991): 587–608. A comprehensive treatment of the effect of the light environment on the conspicuousness of different colour patterns. Espmark, Y. , T. Amundsen , and G. Rosenqvist . Animal Signals: Signalling and Signal Design in Animal Communication ....

Bleak House

Bleak House   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
776 words

...addiction to professional philanthropy; Jo, the crossing‐sweeper, who is chivvied by the police to his death; Chadband, the pious, eloquent humbug; Turveydrop, the model of deportment; Krook, the ‘chancellor’ of the rag and bone department, who dies of spontaneous combustion; Guppy, the lawyer's clerk; Guster, the poor slavey; the law‐stationer Snagsby; Miss Flite , the little lunatic lady who haunts the Chancery courts; and Jarndyce's friend, the irascible and generous Boythorn (drawn from Walter Savage Landor ). For many of Dickens's contemporaries, this...

Prisoner's Dilemma Games

Prisoner's Dilemma Games   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,229 words
Illustration(s):
1

...simultaneous hermaphroditism and “egg swapping” in fish and worms, coalition formation in primates, antipredator behavior in fish, and grooming in impala. As an example, consider the case of the Prisoner's Dilemma and Tit for Tat in the context of predator-inspection behavior in guppies. In many species of fish, one to a few individuals move away from their school and “inspect” a potential predator to gain information about this danger; this is a form of cooperation. Experimental work and indirect evidence support the notion that the payoffs to predator...

Intelligence Gathering and Espionage.

Intelligence Gathering and Espionage.   Reference library

John Ferris and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,010 words

...analysts and politicians sometimes interpreted them to fit their preconceptions. While signals intelligence sometimes penetrated the deepest of foreign secrets, it could also be trivial in significance. One celebrated American code-breaking operation of the Cold War, “Gamma Guppy,” essentially provided U.S. analysts with gossip by top Soviet leaders about their colleagues' sex lives. Aerial and satellite photography generated facts in such quantity as to overwhelm understanding. American intelligence agencies in the 1960s, clogged by millions of satellite...

Shakespeare, William

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616)   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

The Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,177 words

...Dickens , My Father As I Recall Him , 1897 , pp. 47–9). One of his richest and most typical comic veins is the pretence that people behave the same way in private as in public; that is, his characters are invariably seen performing their own distinctive roles. The law-clerk Mr Guppy proposes marriage to Esther by asking to be allowed to ‘file a declaration’ ( BH 9); Mr Lillyvick talks in the argot of a water-rates collector in the Kenwigses drawing-room ( NN 15). Often an audience gathers to witness set pieces: a crowd ‘to the number of some...

Mate Choice

Mate Choice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...examples from both invertebrates and vertebrates. Hamilton, W. D. , and M. Zuk . “ Heritable True Fitness and Bright Birds: A Role for Parasites? ” Science 213 (1982): 384–387. Houde, A. E. Sex, Color, and Mate Choice in Guppies . Princeton, 1997. Detailed discussion of mate choice and the evolution of color patterns in the guppy, a model system for sexual selection studies. Contains a particularly good treatment of how experiments to test mate choice can be constructed, along with good suggestions for future research. Ligon, J. D. The Evolution of...

Sexual Selection

Sexual Selection   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...individual offspring, and hence they are more likely to be choosy about with whom they mate. And indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated the occurrence of female choice for particular males. The bowerbirds are one example of such preference; others include preference for male guppies with more orange spots, male crickets with more continuous songs, and male frogs with deeper croaks. Unlike male competition, female choice selects for ornaments, also called epigamic characters, rather than for weapons used directly in combat. Of course, some traits may function...

Magic

Magic   Reference library

Peter Pels

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,430 words

...of spiritualism by the American Fox sisters in 1848 , soon to be joined by the stage magic perfected by the Davenport brothers (and sold to a still unsuspecting audience as the genuine manifestation of the spirits of the deceased [ Steinmeyer, 2004 ]). Through the medium Mrs. Guppy, the “evidence” of spirit photography gave the movement an objective guise, while the bringing together of science and religion in Madame Blavatsky’s Theosophical Society finally lent these subaltern currents the nom de guerre of “occultism.” Blavatsky adopted the shift in...

Persian Literature

Persian Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,546 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by Iranian women writers of the diaspora have enjoyed some success (such as Gina Nahai's Cry of the Peacock [ 1991 ] or Bahiyyih Nakhjavani's The Saddlebag [ 2000 ]), it is in the genre of autobiography or memoir that they have excelled. Early examples in English are Shusha Guppy's The Blindfold Horse: Memories of a Persian Childhood ( 1988 ) and Sattareh Farman-Farmaian's Daughter of Persia: a Woman's Journey from her Father's Harem through the Islamic Revolution ( 1992 ) which, al-though focused on personal life experiences (in particular childhood),...

law and legal institutions

law and legal institutions   Reference library

David Sugarman

The Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,726 words

... Mr Grewgious , in the form that was to become common by the Edwardian period, namely, as the trusted, respectable, family adviser ( MED ). As one might expect, Dickens's novels contain many lawyers' clerks. These include the conscientious and ambitious cockney, William Guppy ( BH 3), the aged and eccentric Jack Bamber ( PP 20), the 'umble Uriah Heep ( DC 15), and the mannish Sally Brass ( OCS 33). Here, as in his depiction of law stationers, such as Snagsby and Tony Jobling , and copyists, such as Nemo ( BH 5, 7, 10), he communicates...

Transcriptomic Architecture of Reproductive Plasticity

Transcriptomic Architecture of Reproductive Plasticity   Reference library

Susan C. P.Renn and Nadia Aubin-Horth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Medicine and health, Science and technology
Length:
21,754 words
Illustration(s):
1

...coercion influences the mating decision and reproductive success depends on the female’s resistance to coercion, which can vary with age, size, condition, experience, environmental factors, and population density (water strider: Lauer, Sih, & Krupa, 1996 ; Alonzo, 2008 ; guppies: Magellan & Magurran, 2006 ; Farr, 1980 ). Thus, the strength of female choice as a selective pressure on male form and reproductive behavior will vary. Therefore, by first understanding the mechanistic basis for female choice we can begin to move toward a better...

Harp

Harp   Reference library

Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Sue Carole DeVale, Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Joan Rimmer, Robert Evans, William Taylor, Karen Loomis, Joan Rimmer, Cristina Bordas, Cheryl Ann Fulton, John M. Schechter, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Hannelore Devaere, Ronald Stevenson, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Mary McMaster, and Nancy Hurrell

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
34,223 words
Illustration(s):
7

...in ‘D’ (e.g. ‘M H D’ for ‘Maren Halvorsdatter’), which suggests that the harps were played by the women of richer farms. The krogharpe died out completely at the beginning of the 19th century, but in the 20th century makers in Norway and England (such as Sverre Jensen, Paul Guppy, and Kjell Stokke) began building them again. Performers such as Tone Hulbaekmo, Stein Villa, and Åshild Watne have used the harp for Norwegian dance tunes from the langeleik repertory, song accompaniment, and medieval music. The harp is regularly included in the ...

learning

learning   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Animal Behaviour (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,034 words

...by changes in * memory of the contiguity of stimuli and of the consequences of responding to stimuli. The most simple form of learning is * habituation , in which repeated applications of a stimulus result in decreased responsiveness. For example, the escape response of a guppy ( Poecilia reticulate ) to a shadow passed overhead diminishes progressively if the stimulus is presented every 2 min. Eventually, the fish does not respond at all. The type of learning in which an animal forms an * association between a previously significant stimulus and a...

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