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Grammar

This entry surveys the chronological development of Egyptian grammar, distinguishing between grammars of literary and non-literary texts, and giving important examples of each. It also ...

grammars

grammars   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,028 words

...modifications. Ancient and early modern grammar books have low *survival rates ; some were read to pieces. Often, when a copy was made, the original became obsolete and was reused to copy or bind new books. Consequently, the extant grammatical *papyri and MSS represent only a very small part of the original production. 1. Grammar in antiquity 2. Byzantine grammar books 3. Medieval grammatical MSS 4. MS and printed grammars in the Renaissance 1. Grammar in antiquity The first formulations of basic grammar concepts and the creation of grammatical...

Grammars

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
653 words

...methods of generative grammar and discussed all forms in use, ‘correct’ or not. The principal modern historical grammar is the Grammatica storica della lingua italiana e dei suoi dialetti ( 1966–9 ) by Rohlfs , although Castellani's Grammatica storica ( 2000–  ), based on Tuscan, has recently started to appear. Study of the historical grammar of dialects , which offered a subject more suitable than the artificially codified literary language, was cultivated from the mid-19th c. Only exceptionally were descriptive dialect grammars written in the 18th and...

Grammars

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,584 words

...sur la langue française ( 1672 , 1676 ). Secondly, the ‘Port‐Royal grammar’, Arnauld and Lancelot 's Grammaire générale et raisonnée ( 1660 ), combining the tradition of medieval speculative grammar with Cartesianism, inaugurated philosophical rational grammar in France. The fundamental premiss that language reflects thought helps shape not only a novel analysis of the parts of speech but even the work's format. ‘Method’ becomes a keyword in later 17th‐c. grammars (e.g. Denis Vairasse d'Allais's Grammaire méthodique , 1681 ). The beginning...

two-level grammars

two-level grammars   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...grammars ( VW-grammars , van Wijngaarden grammars ) A generalization of context-free grammars that enables non-context-free aspects of a language to be specified. They were developed by A. van Wijngaarden and used in the formal definition of Algol 68. The productions of a two-level grammar are split into two parts: those in the first part are called hyperrules and act as templates for context-free productions; those in the second part are called metaproductions . The metaproductions are context-free productions and they define the set of...

Dictionaries and Grammars

Dictionaries and Grammars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,404 words

...Nahuatl grammar. Prior to Olmos's grammar, two other Nahuatl grammars, since lost, were composed by his fellow Franciscans Francisco Jiménez and Alonso Rengel . The Olmos grammar owes its survival to the significant number of copies made; there are six extant manuscripts, no two quite alike. Printed grammars had better prospects of survival. A Nahuatl grammar by Alonso de Molina was published in 1571 (the same year as Molina's bidirectional Spanish/ Nahuatl and Nahuatl/Spanish dictionary). In 1595 , Antonio del Rincón's Nahuatl grammar marked an...

grammars

grammars  

Reference type:
Overview Page
As workbooks conceived to respond to practical demands, grammar books should be viewed within the context of schools and teaching methods. The pedagogical models transmitted from Graeco-Roman ...
grammar

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The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
265 words

...•• traditional grammar : a term which can cover many periods, but is frequently used to mean the grammar of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries, which was often based on, or in the tradition of, Latin grammar. Compare comparative ( 2 ) ; descriptive ( 2 ) ; generalized phrase structure grammar ; generative grammar ( 2 ) ; government-binding theory ; head-driven phrase structure grammar ; phrase structure grammar ; prescriptive ; structuralism ; systemic grammar ; transformational grammar ; word grammar...

Cognitive Grammar

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The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Grammar A term coined by R. Langacker, referring to the study of grammar using the insights and methodology of Cognitive Linguistics...

Stratificational Grammar

Stratificational Grammar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Grammar A model of grammar, developed in the 1960s by the American linguist Sydney M. Lamb, in which the various levels of analysis are known as strata...

Transformational Grammar

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The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
154 words

...Grammar ( TG ) A theory of grammar in which transformational rules play an essential part. Such rules were first introduced by the American linguist Noam Chomsky in his book Syntactic Structures (1957) (although he had already treated the subject in his doctoral dissertation of 1955). Because this book also introduced the idea that the rules of a grammar should generate grammatical sentences, this type of grammar (contrasted with structuralism and other and more traditional grammatical models) is also known as Transformational-Generative Grammar ...

Systemic Grammar

Systemic Grammar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
244 words

...Grammar A theory of grammar and language use developed by M. A. K. Halliday, which is a development of Scale-and-Category Grammar . Also called Systemic-Functional Grammar . Scale-and-Category Grammar, like early Generative Grammar ( 2 ) , was much concerned with syntax and structure, but as the theory developed, the meaning and social functions of language became increasingly important. 1985 G. D. MORLEY During the latter half of the 1960s Halliday’s work became increasingly influenced by ideas on the functional nature of language…and a...

Generative Grammar

Generative Grammar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
222 words

...Grammar ), but generative grammar does not necessarily contain transformational rules. See monostratal . See also chomskyan ; generalized phrase structure grammar ; generative ; generative semantics ; government-binding theory ; grammar ; head-driven phrase structure grammar ; minimalist program ; phrase structure grammar ; principles and parameters theory ; standard theory ; transform ; transformation...

Relational Grammar

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The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Grammar A theory of grammar developed as an offshoot of Generative Grammar ( 2 ) from the mid-1970s onwards by David Perlmutter and Paul Postal, in which clauses are analysed as networks of functional relationships ( subject , object , etc.) rather than in terms of constituents...

Case Grammar

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The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
237 words

...Grammar A model of grammar developed in the late 1960s by the American linguist Charles Fillmore (b. 1929), which pays special attention to cases, understood as semantic roles. The theory, along with other developments in Generative Grammar ( 2 ) , grew to some extent out of a dissatisfaction with the earlier Standard Theory . In this framework, case is not a morphosyntactic category (as in traditional grammar; see case ( 1 ) ) but a category of meaning . Thus, in The burglars broke the door down the grammatical subject is an agent , but...

Functional Grammar

Functional Grammar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Grammar ( FG ) A theory of grammar developed by the late Simon Dik and his associates since 1978 in which functional notions are of chief importance at various levels of representation. 1997 S. DIK & K. HENGEVELD In the functional paradigm…a language is in the first place conceptualized as an instrument of social interaction among human beings, used with the intention of establishing communicative...

Word Grammar

Word Grammar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
188 words

...from the ‘phrase’ and ‘clause’ of other theories). b. WG is wholist because no distinction is recognized between the grammar ‘proper’ and the lexicon. The grammar includes facts at all levels of generality, all of which are handled in the same way. 2010 R. HUDSON Word Grammar is a theory of language structure based on the assumption that language, and indeed the whole of knowledge, is a network, and that virtually all of knowledge is learned. It combines the psychological insights of cognitive linguistics with the rigour of more formal...

Construction Grammar

Construction Grammar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Grammar A cover term for a number of linguistic frameworks in which constructions , defined as conventionalized pairings of structures with meanings, are primitive . By contrast, practitioners of Chomskyan linguistics and some other theoretical frameworks regard constructions as epiphenomenal ( See construction ). 2006 A. GOLDBERG What makes a theory that allows constructions to exist ‘a construction-based theory’ is the idea that the network of constructions captures our grammatical knowledge of language in toto, i.e. it’s...

Grammar

Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
13 words

... . See Formal Grammar and Functional Linguistics . See also various theories of grammar...

grammar

grammar n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . 1. The branch of linguistics concerned with sentence structure, especially syntax and morphology ( 2 ) . 2. The system of implicit rules governing a speaker's use of a language, especially semantics and phonology . See also case grammar , context-dependent grammar , context-free grammar , finite-state grammar , generative grammar , phrase-structure grammar , pivot grammar , transformational grammar , universal grammar . [From Greek grammatikos concerning...

grammar

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
139 words

... The systematic ways in which sentences of a language may be built. Grammar is typically studied independently of phonetics and semantics . Its two branches are syntax, or the way words make sentences, and morphology, which includes the recognition of syntactically significant parts of words. A grammar that aspires to find categories and rules applicable to all (human) languages is a universal grammar. Grammar may be pursued in various ways: a formal grammar aspires to the production of a proof procedure or algorithm separating the well-formed...

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