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gender stereotypes

See also stereotyping. 1. Personal beliefs about gender differences in traits and behaviour, largely attributable to socialization. ...

gender stereotypes

gender stereotypes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
267 words

... stereotypes ( sex role stereotypes ) See also stereotyping . 1. Personal beliefs about gender differences in traits and behaviour , largely attributable to socialization . 2. Standardized representations of men and women within a culture , particularly in the mass media , which polarize differences between the sexes, notably in their physical appearance , traits, behaviours, and occupations. The stereotypes are so widely known that on the basis of identifying any one element in a gender stereotype (such as physical appearance), people...

gender stereotypes

gender stereotypes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
68 words

... stereotypes These are one-sided and exaggerated images of men and women which are deployed repeatedly in everyday life. They are found commonly in the mass media because they operate as a widely understood shorthand. Sociologists often see stereotyping as part of the process by which children are socialized into sex roles and by which adults and children are denied opportunities for more individually varied...

Women in Public Administration in the United States: Leadership, Gender Stereotypes, and Bias

Women in Public Administration in the United States: Leadership, Gender Stereotypes, and Bias   Reference library

Sofia Calsy and Maria J. D’Agostino

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,876 words

...the blatant discrimination of earlier decades. This article focuses on bias, and specifically second-generation gender bias. Women in Leadership: Gender Stereotypes Gender stereotypes and gender inequities are continued concerns found in areas of the workforce, education, economic participation, and empowerment. Gender stereotypes are generalizations about the attributes of men and women ( Heilman, 2012 ). Complex issues like sex and gender representation prompt new needed policy and administrative responses within public agencies ( D’Agostino & Elias, ...

gender stereotypes

gender stereotypes  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
See also stereotyping.1. Personal beliefs about gender differences in traits and behaviour, largely attributable to socialization.2. Standardized representations of men and women within a culture, ...
gender stereotyping

gender stereotyping   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... stereotyping ( gender role stereotyping ) Exaggerated generalizations of differences between the sexes that see certain attitudes, emotions, and behaviours as typifying what it means to be a woman or a man. The basis of much of the socialization of children and young people into their gender identity . See also deconstruction ; femininity ; gender differentiation ; gender dysphoria ; gender roles ; masculinity ; social construction...

gender role stereotyping

gender role stereotyping   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... role stereotyping The labelling of certain forms of behaviour and actions as being appropriate to one sex, but not the...

Gender Stereotyping in Political Decision Making

Gender Stereotyping in Political Decision Making   Reference library

Nichole M. Bauer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Decision Making

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,479 words

...outlines how and when gender stereotypes affect political decision making. The article begins by defining gender stereotypes and explaining how these concepts reflect conceptions of political leadership. There are three questions to address regarding the role of gender stereotypes in political decision making. First, how do candidates leverage gender stereotypes in campaign strategies? Second, how do the news media use gender stereotypes in coverage of political candidates? Third, how and when do voters use gender stereotypes? The final section outlines a...

gender role stereotyping

gender role stereotyping  

The labelling of certain forms of behaviour and actions as being appropriate to one sex, but not the other.
Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the moneyed interest and decline of the citizen soldier was expressed in the gender-specific term ‘effeminacy’. Those who warned Englishmen that effeminacy was the inevitable effect of luxury had the most powerful of all precedents in mind: the history of the degeneracy of Rome, from virtuous republic to luxurious empire. Tension between the high evaluation of refinement in men and the wish to square it with manliness permeated the eighteenth-century novel, whatever the gender of the writer. Samuel Richardson ( 1689–1761 ), the author of what is usually...

Qur'an and Woman

Qur'an and Woman   Reference library

Amina Wadud-Muhsin

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,749 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... The Prior Text of Gender-Specific Languages The significance of masculine and feminine forms, whether used distinctively or to make generic indications, was an important part of my analysis. Perspectives on gender, particularly on the understanding of what constitutes feminine or masculine behavior, and the roles of men and women in society, are based on one's cultural context. Gender-specific languages, such as Arabic, create a particular prior text for the...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and denied them their rightful position in society. But she was unable to establish a form in which to articulate women's claim to creativity or genius. She showed her outrage at the gendering of aesthetic values most clearly in her attack on Edmund Burke's use of the language of sexual difference in his contrast between the *sublime and the beautiful. Burke's gendering of the sublime as masculine, in his influential A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas on the Sublime and Beautiful ( 1757 ), she argued, denied women both creative power...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...culture without drastic, or even devastating, externally imposed cultural change. A major problem with the approach to MENA is that it adopts many myths built on Orientalist stereotypes and ignores the changes that have occurred to the socio-economic situation of women in the last century. One recent report published by the World Bank criticized the main features of the “traditional gender paradigm” in its definition: that women are expected to marry early, be home makers and obey men who are breadwinners and mediators between women and the public sphere. 1 ...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... shari‘a and Islamic literature continue to support negative stereotypes of Sudanese from the southern and western parts of the country, which were sources of slaves until the late 19th century. Moreover, recent news reports indicate that Muslim tribesmen of southwestern Sudan feel justified in capturing non-Muslims from southern Sudan and keeping them in secret slavery. Discrimination on Grounds of Gender and Religion A similar...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was underpinned by innovations in the mechanics and conditions of book production: most notably the building of the first hand-operated iron-frame printing press (invented by Stanhope ) in 1800 ; the introduction of machine-made paper; and the development of the plaster-mould stereotype. These innovations created the circumstances in which new moves to capture a mass market for fiction could begin, in the 1820s, with projects such as Archibald Constable 's ( 1774–1827 ) and Robert Cadell 's ( 1788–1849 ) remarketings of Scott's Waverley novels. Meanwhile,...

Judith

Judith   Reference library

Amy-Jill Levine and Amy-Jill Levine

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thirty-four days of the siege of Bethulia ( 7:20 ) even as Judith's sackcloth mirrors that of the townspeople (and cattle). Upon hearing of the people's protest and Uzziah's response, Judith sends her slave, the one in charge of all her property, to summon the town elders. Stereotypical gender roles are reversed: a female slave commands a major estate; a widow demands obedience from city officials. The Bethulian elders receive from Judith strong rebuke: how do they dare test, place conditions upon, or presume to know the thoughts of God? Rather, the people...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...) has offered an explanation for why we should not expect Paul to follow the same argument in this letter as when addressing the Romans. This particular point can be made more emphatically, however. A social-identity approach to Galatians has revealed how far Paul will go in stereotyping Israelites even when they are a part of his congregations ( Esler 1998 ); we would expect such attitudes to apply a fortiori when his audience is Gentile, as in Thessalonica. Finally, there are other possible candidates for the catastrophe referred to in 2:16 , such as the...

Esther

Esther   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Carol Meyers

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,114 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Mont.: Scholars Press). Bronner, L. L. (1994), From Eve to Esther: Rabbinic Reconstructions of Biblical Women , Gender and the Biblical Tradition, 4 (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox). Clines, D. J. A. (1984), The Esther Scroll: The Story of the Story , JSOTSup 30 (Sheffield: JSOT). ———(1988), ‘Esther’, HBC , 387–94. Crawford, S. A. W. (1989), ‘Esther: A Feminine Model for the Jewish Diaspora’, in Peggy L. Day (ed.), Gender and Difference (Philadelphia: Fortress), 161–77. ———(1992), ‘Esther’, in Carol A. Newsom and Sharon H. Ringe (eds.), ...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of *stereotyping , the Philadelphia society produced bibles in the tens of thousands; a network of auxiliary societies distributed them across Pennsylvania. The national evangelical publishing concerns founded over the next two decades—the *American Bible Society ( 1815 ), the *American Sunday-School Union ( 1824 ), and the *American Tract Society ( 1825 )—employed similar methods. These religious publishers stood at the forefront of technological change and mass communication in the US. To produce their huge print runs, they relied upon stereotyping...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thievery, and disease. All of these sentiments are present in John Chrysostom's eight forceful homilies to the Judaizing Christians of Antioch, delivered in 386 and 387, which drew on stock rhetorical images and on what by the fourth century had become stereotyped Christian invective. John's sermons must be understood, as Robert Wilken has observed, both in the context of the vibrance and attractiveness of the Antiochene Jewish community to which many local Christians were drawn and in the context of his ongoing struggles against Arian...

A Feminist Interpretation of Women's Rights in Islam

A Feminist Interpretation of Women's Rights in Islam   Reference library

Fatima Mernissi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,492 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the polls. Only 36 women won election, as against 65,502 men! 4 To interpret the relationship between the massive participation of women voters and the small number of women elected as a sign of stagnation and backwardness would be in accordance with the usual stereotypes applied to the Arab world. However, it would be more insightful to see it as a reflection of changing times and the intensity of the conflicts between the aspirations of women, who take the constitution of their country seriously, and the resistance of men, who imagine, despite...

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