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Overview

formal language

1 A language with explicit and precise rules for its syntax and semantics. Examples include programming languages and also logics such as predicate calculus. Thus formal ...

Formal Language

Formal Language   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Formal Language . 1. Language that is formal and ceremonial. 2. A language designed for use in situations in which natural language is considered unsuitable, such as logic, mathematics, and computer programming. Compare artificial language ; natural language . ...

formal language

formal language   Reference library

Gregory Mellema

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
136 words

... language . A formal language is a language two of whose features are formally specified: the linguistic symbols of the language and rules for joining together or concatenating these symbols into well-formed formulae or words which can be assigned precise meanings. In standard first-order logic the formal language consists of variables, constants, logical connectives, function and relational symbols, parentheses, and quantifiers, together with rules for the construction of well-formed formulae. Kurt Gödel discovered a method for assigning natural...

formal language

formal language   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... language 1. A language with explicit and precise rules for its syntax and semantics. Examples include programming languages and also logics such as predicate calculus . Thus formal languages contrast with natural languages such as English whose rules, evolving as they do with use, fall short of being either a complete or a precise definition of the syntax, much less the semantics, of the language. 2. A finite or infinite set of strings , considered in isolation from any possible meaning the strings or the symbols in them may have. If A is any set, an...

formal language theory

formal language theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... language theory The study of formal languages in the sense of sets of strings. A major branch of formal language theory concerns finite descriptions of infinite languages. Such a representation takes the form of an abstract device for generating or recognizing any string of the language ( see grammar , L-system , automaton ). This branch of the subject has applications to the syntax of programming languages (as distinct from their semantics , which require quite different mathematical tools). Thus the set of all legal Java programs can be thought...

formal language

formal language  

1 A language with explicit and precise rules for its syntax and semantics. Examples include programming languages and also logics such as predicate calculus. Thus formal languages contrast with ...
formal language theory

formal language theory  

The study of formal languages in the sense of sets of strings. A major branch of formal language theory concerns finite descriptions of infinite languages. Such a representation takes the form of an ...
34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

Jürgen M. Warmbrunn

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,013 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1569 and 1795 , and share a predominantly Catholic faith. Particularly in Estonia and Latvia, the Reformation played a major role in the spread of books and reading in the vernacular. Latvian and Lithuanian are both Baltic languages and form part of the Indo-European linguistic family, whereas Estonian is a Finno-Ugric language, which in part explains the traditionally strong ties between Estonia and Finland. Under Soviet rule, the Baltic States’ printing and publishing industries were nationalized into large state enterprises and tightly controlled to...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

Charlotte Appel and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,240 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...samlaget ). In Finland, Swedish remained the cultural and administrative language for much of the 19 th century, but Finnish gradually gained ground, achieving equal legal status in 1892 . Both languages are now officially recognized (Swedish being a minority language). In Iceland, the nationalist movement stressed continuity with medieval Norse. An active language policy strove to replace old and new borrowings from foreign languages with Icelandic words. The general interest across Scandinavia in national history and popular culture gave rise to numerous...

4 The History of the Book in Byzantium

4 The History of the Book in Byzantium   Reference library

N. G. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,221 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...unusual texts could not normally be satisfied by a visit to a neighbouring shop, even if one lived in the capital of the empire. The Byzantines called themselves Romans, but understood that they were custodians of the Greek literary heritage; in their formal writings they did their best to imitate the language and style of the Greek classics. One has to ask how far they succeeded in preserving the stock of Greek literature they inherited in late antiquity. It is fairly certain that already by this date a number of classical texts were no longer in circulation;...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

Andrew Murphy

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of prayers and other elementary religious texts. The Welsh scholar William Salesbury published a Welsh–English dictionary in the following year; he also wrote Protestant polemics in both languages. A Welsh New Testament was published in 1567 and a Welsh Bible in 1588 . The success of the Reformation in Wales played a significant role in establishing a Welsh-language publishing tradition. Williams, for example, has observed that the widespread use of Welsh translations of the scriptures ‘enabled the Welsh, alone among the Celtic-speaking peoples, to move...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...receives a letter from him; Charmian taunts her with her former passion for Julius Caesar. 2.1 Menas tells Pompey and Menecrates that Caesar and Lepidus have assembled an army; Varrius brings the unwelcome news that Antony is on his way to Rome to join them. 2.2 In Rome, at a formal meeting between the triumvirs, Antony denies responsibility for Fulvia’s conduct, and defends himself against charges of denying Caesar military aid: Enobarbus impertinently suggests that the triumvirs should simply postpone this feud until they have defeated Pompey together....

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the two remaining were internal, and require lengthier treatment, starting with the national language. From the 16 th to the middle of the 20 th century, an averagely educated Italian was expected to master two languages, apart from what was spoken at home, through schooling and reading. The first was classical Latin (often with the rudiments of Greek)—a dead language, but necessary to understand the importance of Italy’s cultural heritage. The second language was Italian, which at that time was neither dead nor living. Outside school, the average Italian...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...all the way through from private rituals in face of the supernatural, and expressions of, or restraints on, personal conduct whether sexual or social; via communal observances marking the local social structure as a constantly renewing process in a specific environment; to more formal matters concerned with access to property. These last might be personal, in terms of local tenure or post mortem arrangements (e.g. Borough English or freebench ), or communal, in organizing agricultural routines, apportioning rights of common, and defending the rights of a...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

Beth McKillop

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...by some cultural enterprises forcefully resisting the Japanese colonial regime, while others accommodated and collaborated with the Japanese. Writing and publishing in the Korean language was constrained, as the colonizers attempted to shape Korean social and cultural identity in ways that supported Japanese imperialist ambitions. For a time, the future of Korean as a medium of formal communication and education was uncertain. It was against this background of struggle and contested nationhood that modern Korea’s influential newspaper and book publishing...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

Craig Kallendorf

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...appendix in Raffles's volume was far more extensive. Though Raffles sought to contribute to knowledge, and included terms for body parts, religious concepts, and even for supposed equivalents of the signs of the Zodiac in Malay, Javanese, and other languages, his volume was directed more toward practical language use, and incorporated many terms and much usage relating to commodities and the conduct of trade. It would be wrong, however, to imagine an even progression in exploratory writing which ranged from eighteenth-century texts of a sentimental,...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...senses of education testifies, however, to the extent that the term or concept was now ‘commonly confined’ to schooling, as Mill complained in 1815 when composing an entry on ‘Education’ for the Encyclopaedia Britannica . His own educational concerns were often with matters of formal instruction in schools or institutions of higher learning; and neither he nor the other writers listed above completely disdained the uses of such instruction, as some more radical voices were inclined to do. (‘I hold it to be wrong,’ William *Blake is reported as saying;...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that they were following the pattern of 1688 , a division between those who were prepared to welcome its proclamation of natural rights and formal equality and those who distrusted such ‘French principles’ and were willing to find some accommodation with Burke. Initially, there was little sense of a tension between the common assumption of the rights of the freeborn Englishman, which were firmly fixed in the language of *Wilkite parliamentary opposition of the 1770s, and the opposition to the war with America, as well as the more abstract rights associated...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of years, with hundreds of different languages. The subtleties of their encounters with European literacy have only recently begun to be explored. David Unaipon ( Native Legends , 1929 ) is justly famous as the first published Aboriginal author, but the first Aboriginal to engage actively with European literacy was the Eora leader Bennelong, who dictated a letter in 1796 . In the intervening years, Aboriginal publishing was predominately conducted by white missionaries and fell into two main categories: language books directed at Europeans (starting with...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by no learned traditions, based on no formal techniques’. Anna Laetitia *Barbauld suggested in ‘On Romances’ ( 1773 ) that sentimental fiction was popular because ‘few can reason, but all can feel’. Here, she said, was illimitable potential: ‘Sorrow is universally felt.’ Debarred from the educational establishment and usually from a knowledge of the ancient languages, women turned their hand to a form and subject they could master by themselves. If the supposedly ‘unexacting’ requirements of the novel's language were thought to suit women's nervous...

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