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foreign sector

The part of a country's economy that is concerned with external trade (imports and exports) and capital flows (inward and outward).

foreign sector

foreign sector   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
23 words

... sector The part of a country’s economy that is concerned with external trade (imports and exports) and capital flows (inward and...

foreign sector

foreign sector   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... sector The part of a country’s economy that is concerned with external trade (imports and exports) and capital flows (inward and outward)....

foreign sector

foreign sector  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The part of a country's economy that is concerned with external trade (imports and exports) and capital flows (inward and outward).
27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

María Luisa López-Vidriero

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,347 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...printing and the book trade were potent weapons in their establishment. Printers’ exemption from military service and the reduction of taxes on book imports served to encourage the book trade and turn it into an attractive mercantile sector. These measures also included incentives for citizens to enter the trade, and for foreign printers to consider Spain, and later Portugal, countries with favourable employment prospects, especially during the European economic crisis towards the end of the 15 th century. Seville was well suited to immigrant German printers,...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...empowerment. Now with the failure of states to provide social welfare and the negative effects of the open market on the socio-economic conditions of many women, employment in a globalized private sector can form a new challenge for social citizenship rights. This reminds us that women's empowerment should always be contextualized in respective sectors and national con-ditions to allow critical assessment. Implications for current debates The suggested reform in the paradigm can lead to substantial change in the nature of the debate on different aspects...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

Patricia Lockhart Fleming

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,134 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...placed with a British or American firm. Under the agency system—which prevailed through much of the 20 th century—Canadian houses were named exclusive agents for foreign publishers. In some instances they distributed bound books, in others they imported printed sheets, or bought or rented stereotype *plate s for a Canadian issue, possibly under a local imprint. As the trade developed, foreign firms opened branches in Toronto: *Oxford University Press came in 1904 ; *Macmillan opened in 1906 . Young entrepreneurs, such as the founders of *McClelland...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

Claire Squires

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,043 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the 2000s a televised book club, *Richard and Judy , became the single most effective maker of bestsellers. Meanwhile, technological advances have led to rapid changes in the sectors of educational, STM (Science, Technical, and Medical), and reference publishing, with digital publishing pushing new business models ( see computer ; 19 ). The nature of some market sectors has rendered book publishers into information providers, with their products barely recognizable as the traditional *codex . As these technological developments have progressed,...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

Niall Ó Ciosáin and Clare Hutton

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,023 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Irish, modern versions of older Irish classics, and translations of foreign novels, particularly novels in English. In some respects the state’s support for Irish-language publishing went hand in hand with its enthusiasm for censorship: both initiatives involved the desire to control and direct the evolution of national book culture. By reducing the supply of largely imported literature, the government inadvertently provided a fillip to the commercial fortunes of the Irish publishing sector, as domestic production expanded to fill the gap. Moreover, the two...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...second half of the century. The growth in numbers of students had the double result of enlarging the reading public and of making *textbooks a secure and fast-growing business after 1850 —a business that was dominated by foreign publishing houses with branches in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries. Indeed, the incursion of foreign publishers in the Latin American textbook market had started in the 1820s , when Ackermann exported, with limited success, large numbers of secular ‘catechisms’ of general knowledge (meant for both school and non-school...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

Abhijit Gupta

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,070 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...niche firms, which have brought creativity and energy to publishing. Tara in Madras publishes for the neglected young adult sector, while Kali for Women and Stree have distinguished themselves in women’s studies. Permanent Black has set a high standard for scholarly publishing; Seagull is noted for the quality of its theatre and arts books, and Roli publishes expensive art books for an overseas market. Translation is another sector that is beginning to register growth after decades of inexplicable neglect. Thus, with an expanding population, solid...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

Cristina Dondi

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...printers in Venice joined confraternities, which helped their integration into the city’s social network, bringing obvious benefits. The first ten years of Venetian printing were dominated by foreign printers, working alone or in syndicates; their success was determined by their advanced distribution networks (often by exploiting their links with fellow foreign traders), as well as by the production side of the business. The following two decades saw the establishment and consolidation of Italian firms, such as *Arrivabene , Giunta, *Torresano , ...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and militaristic literature, and introduced censorship. Gradually, the Four Powers issued licences and German publishing burgeoned again, though developments varied somewhat in the different zones of occupation. The first licence for the publication of books in the British Sector of Berlin was granted on 3 October 1945 to Walter *de Gruyter Verlag, whose roots go back to 1749 . In the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the former Soviet Zone of Occupation, almost all publishing firms passed into state control. Thus, long-established firms like...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Christian. Many of these migrants were skilled artisans, teachers, engineers, doctors, and ex‐Indian and British armed forces personnel; others filled the post‐war labour shortages in British mills, factories, and steelworks, and in the hospitals and public transport sectors. Once this largely male cohort became established economically, spouses and relatives came to join them. Other post‐war arrivals included indentured labourers who had migrated to sugar‐producing colonies or to British colonies in East Africa. The granting of independence to...

Islam, Reform, and the New Arab Man

Islam, Reform, and the New Arab Man   Reference library

Hichem Djait

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,890 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...but new, expressing the universal in an original way. The radically new, the jamais vu , by projecting itself onto the nostalgia for the ancient, will mature—but the new will be formless and consequently ineffable. A true renaissance is both a revival of certain privileged sectors of the past and a leap into the unknown. It is an affirmation of creative liberty and presupposes peeling away the scales of certain parts of our being. The Arab renaissance, if understood in a sense other than pure nostalgia or mere repetition, must recover its breadth...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...practice in the nation. The stridency of his accompanying Descriptive Catalogue , which bemoaned the state of the arts in a corrupt society, only served to suggest the cultural marginality of the works he had produced. Blake's denunciation emanated from an embattled, radicalized sector of the art world. A similarly searching attack on contemporary taste came from within the centre of Academic culture itself. In one of his annual lectures as Professor of Painting at the Academy, Henry Fuseli, who served in the post from 1799 to 1804 , declared: ‘if we apply to...

1 Esdras

1 Esdras   Reference library

Sara Japhet and Sara Japhet

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,313 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...dissolving of the intermarriages—the wholesome purification of the people of Israel from the pollution of the foreign nations—as a necessary precondition for the sacred ceremony of the reading of the law. ( 8:68–70 ), the leaders present Ezra with a grave problem; the people of Israel have mixed with the foreign population of the land by taking their daughters to be their wives, with the leaders of the community in the forefront. The list of foreign peoples is enlightening. Ezra 9:1 mentions two groups of peoples: five of the ‘seven nations’, the ancient...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Numbers at both universities were to return to their former heights by the end of the Napoleonic *wars [2] . The growing prosperity and ambition of the middle class during the Industrial Revolution may have been a factor in these increased enrolments, although the commercial sectors of this class were troubled, even as they were beguiled, by the air of aristocratic nonchalance which seemed to prevail at the old universities. This laxity permeated the teaching and examining practices of these institutions; and there was further cause for concern in the...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the enemy's resource base, as Marlborough did when he laid waste Bavarian territory in his 1704 Blenheim campaign. War in the age of Marlborough and Frederick the Great was, however, ‘limited’ by the enormous constraints imposed by poor communications, small industrial sectors, and labour-intensive production which were not lifted until the emergence of industrial societies in the nineteenth century. There is much irony in this, because the *Enlightenment [32] encouraged the view that war would become increasingly anachronistic with the spread of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...understood conventions known as ‘the courtesy of the trade’. The primary tenet of trade courtesy stipulated that the first American publisher to announce that it had a foreign work ‘in press’ won the rights to its publication; other publishers were expected to relinquish any plans to publish it. By a second principle, the ‘rule of association’, the publisher that initially reprinted a foreign author’s work could stake a claim to that author’s subsequent works. The system was far from perfect, and participating publishers routinely complained about trade ...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

Vincent Giroud

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Milhaud’s Petit Journal was selling more than a million copies by 1891 . In 1914 , Le Petit Parisien was issued in 1.5 million copies, with Le Matin and Le Journal not far behind at 1 million each. After a relative decline in the 1870s , this boom affected nearly all sectors, perhaps most especially the novel. Thus, if the initial volumes of the Rougon-Macquart series sold moderately, the success of L’Assommoir in 1876 propelled Zola (a Charpentier author) to the highest print runs of any novelist in his generation (55,000 copies for the first...

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