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floodplain management

A coordinated approach to the reduction of flood damage that usually includes emergency and contingency plans, flood control works, and regulations to control current and future ...

floodplain management

floodplain management   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... management A coordinated approach to the reduction of flood damage that usually includes emergency and contingency plans, flood control works, and regulations to control current and future development in the flood...

floodplain management

floodplain management  

A coordinated approach to the reduction of flood damage that usually includes emergency and contingency plans, flood control works, and regulations to control current and future development in the ...
White, Gilbert F.

White, Gilbert F. (1911–2006)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
105 words

...up a post as Professor of Geography at the University of Chicago in 1955 . He moved to the University of Colorado, Boulder in 1970 where he stayed until retirement. White was an enormously influential geographer who helped to shape approaches to hazards in general and floodplain management in particular. See also Environment as Hazard, The...

Environment as Hazard, The

Environment as Hazard, The   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
175 words

...And yet people continue to live on floodplains or on major fault lines or in the lee of volcanoes, and the effects of natural hazards are often amplified by the acts or neglect of people. The Environment as Hazard provided an understanding of how people deal with natural hazards, discussing the role of social systems, perceptions of risk, technology, and economic development, and framing the analysis within risk theory. The book was highly influential in policy circles with respect to disaster planning and management, though it was criticized by some for...

alluvium

alluvium   Reference library

Richard Smart and Robert White

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

..., a type of sediment which is deposited by flowing water on floodplains, in riverbeds, in deltas, and in estuaries, often derived from many different and distant sources. Soils formed on alluvial sediments are typically fertile and varied in texture, with particle sizes ranging from clay to silt , sand , and sometimes gravel or boulders. Variations in drainage and age can often be seen over a few metres of distance and a few centimetres of depth. Where these soils are stony or sandy, with rapid drainage and generally low water-holding capacity,...

floods

floods   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,700 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by greater floodplain occupancy putting more people at risk to the flood hazard. The responses to flooding have evolved in what hydrologists have recently referred to as the structural era (1930s–60s), the unified floodplain management era (1960s–80s), and the post-flood mitigation era (1980s–). The structural era is a period in which reliance was almost totally placed in engineering solutions through the construction of reservoirs and levees and through channel improvements (usually widening and straightening). The unified floodplain management era is...

meanders and meandering rivers

meanders and meandering rivers   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of sediment transported into a bend from upstream. The consequence of meander migration and flooding is to create a zone of alluvial sediments bordering the river. The composition of this floodplain reflects the history of development of the river, its sediment load, and its mobility. Thus, traces of old channels (some of them oxbow lakes) are commonly found in the floodplains of meandering rivers. In some instances, meanders may not be developing entirely in recent alluvium but may be constrained by river terraces or the valley sides. A confined style of...

river channelization

river channelization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
809 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to as channelization , are among the most widespread and obvious direct impacts on river channels in many developed countries. In such regions, the introduction of machinery such as draglines and bulldozers during the past 150 years or so, and the increased demand placed on flood-plain lands for agricultural or urban development, have led to an intensive period of channel modification. In some lowland catchments in Europe, for example, more than 95 per cent of river channels have been directly modified through channelization. The scientific literature on...

irrigation

irrigation   Reference library

Michael Decker and James Keenan

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...floodwater. This required great labour and therefore, in good times, either the efficiency of a rigidly centralized state administration or the steady application of local knowledge. Which is of more importance is debated; opinion currently favours the latter. Land beyond the flood-plain of the Nile, dedicated to orchards and vineyards, was irrigated artificially. In places this was accomplished with the ancient shaduf (a scoop at the end of a pole set on a fulcrum). The Hellenistic period saw the introduction of the Archimedean screw and the animal-driven...

Irrigation

Irrigation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...growth during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms and in Greco-Roman times. Similarly, it is pertinent for interwoven issues of land tenure and irrigation management, including the discredited but tenacious Wittfogel hypothesis, which claims that centralized control of irrigation will evolve concomitantly with a hierarchical social order and despotic government. Natural Irrigation A convex floodplain, such as that of the Egyptian Nile, is inundated naturally, in response to the predictable rhythm of annual runoff. The floods fill the channel first and then...

Environmental Archaeology

Environmental Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,069 words

...about 4000–2000 bce , before resuming a more equitable, meandering flow, by perhaps 1800 bce (Courty, 1994 ). In Palestine, Naḥal Lachish, near the tell of that name, had a broad, “wet” floodplain from the EB into the MB II period, when slope soils were eroded; only thereafter did the stream cut down its channel and strip away its agriculturally attractive floodplain ( Goldberg , 1986 ; Rosen , 1986 ). The only other environmental “event” in about 2200 bce was in the Nile Valley, where the Old Kingdom state dissolved amid dynastic anarchy and...

Rivers and Streams

Rivers and Streams   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,398 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... Dordrecht: Junk, 1986. Degens, E. T. , et al., eds. Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers . Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 1991. de Waal, L. C. , et al., eds. Ecology and Management of Invasive Riverside Plants . Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 1994. Ellet, Charles . The Mississippi and Ohio Rivers . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, 1853. Junk, W. J. The Flood-Pulse Concept in River-Floodplain Systems . Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 106 (1989), 110–127. Malanson, G. P. Riparian Landscapes . Cambridge: Cambridge University...

North America, Origins of Food Production in

North America, Origins of Food Production in   Reference library

C. Wesley Cowan and Kristen J. Gremillion

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,241 words

... macrocarpa ), a native gourd ( Cucurbita pepo ), and the starchy seeded goosefoot ( Chenopodium berlandieri) . Although initially adapted to floodplains, these domesticates are also abundant in pre-3000 BP deposits in upland rockshelters of the Ozark Plateau of Arkansas and Missouri and the Appalachian foothills of eastern Kentucky. In areas of high relief and scarce level land, agriculture may have been less floodplain dependent. In eastern Kentucky, appropriate garden sites were available on colluvial slopes and upland benches within easy reach of...

Geology

Geology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,522 words
Illustration(s):
2

...phases. Other surface environments to be understood in archaeohistorical research include plains, plateaus, mesas, hills, mountains (volcanic, folded, fault-block), canyons, basins (graben or rift valleys), alluvial fans, valleys (stream and glacial), alluvial terraces, floodplains, deltas, beach/shore zones, glacial moraines, till plains, and outwash terrains. Historically, these natural depositions formed human-site contexts in temperate, tropical, arid, and polar settings in which settlers would need to control terrain, water, food...

Water Issues

Water Issues   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,467 words

...water management, flood control, hydropower production, or allocations for irrigation and other uses (Giordano and Wolf; Lund and Palmer). The proliferation of international water management institutions can be seen as the continuation of a long history in which social complexity has emerged out of efforts to obtain and store water, divert it to where it is most needed, prevent or lessen the threat of floods, and harness its power. Rivers, like markets, are places where complexity emerges. And just as with trade in goods and services, water management works...

flash floods

flash floods   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...at risk. ALERT systems are also being used extensively for water-quality monitoring, water-supply decision making, fine-weather forecasting, and air-quality monitoring. ALERT use for reservoir management and watering of urban golf courses saves cities millions of dollars a year and pays for the cost of the system. Internet capability enables officials and flood-plain residents to monitor gauge conditions 24 hours a day in some places, such as Maricopa County, Arizona. Knowing the conditions in real time is a step towards a warning but it is not an effective...

Settlement Archaeology

Settlement Archaeology   Reference library

Katharina J. Schreiber and Thomas F. King

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,054 words

...for displaying regional data and producing more elaborate maps of archaeological remains. [ See also Artifact Distribution Analysis ; Cultural Resource Management ; Geographic Information Systems ; Hill Forts ; Morgan, Lewis Henry ; Sampling ; Settlement Pattern Analysis . ] Adams, Robert McCormick . Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates , 1981. Ammerman, Albert J. “Surveys and Archaeological Research.” Annual Review of Anthropology 10 (1981): 63–88. Fish, Suzanne K. , and...

Weather Hazards

Weather Hazards   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...hazards is a complex social process that may involve decisions at all levels from the individual and local, to corporate and governmental, to international. The type of decision may range from the tactical (as in restricting building permits) to resource management policies (as in planning floodplain land use) to broad national strategies (as in adopting comprehensive flood damage reduction or a national flood insurance program). Research on the choice of these adjustments, and the actual mix adopted in different jurisdictions has led to some useful...

Disaster Policy, Federal

Disaster Policy, Federal   Reference library

Andrew F. Coffey and Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,619 words

...natural disaster. Rather, disasters are a combination of human decisions and natural conditions that contribute to the risk for, and consequences of, all disasters. A massive flood in an uninhabited region is part of nature’s cycle of renewal; when humans build a city in a floodplain, the deluge becomes a disaster. Disaster policy can be defined as what a government chooses to do, or not to do, about disasters. Twentieth-Century Disaster Policy.  Di- sasters in the contemporary United States are public problems that citizens want government to address....

Colorado River, Transformation of The

Colorado River, Transformation of The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,603 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the lower Colorado River, most original stands of Fremont cottonwood ( Populus fremontii ) and Goodding willow ( Salix gooddingii ) near the river, and honey mesquite ( Prosopis glandulosa ) bosques (forests or wooded thickets) on the floodplain terraces, have been lost, a consequence of river channelization and floodplain development. In a few locations where backwaters along reservoirs and rivers remain, there are dense stands of tamarisk ( Tamarix chinensis ), a small, nonnative tree species that naturalizes rapidly. These now create a wildlife habitat,...

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