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fine suspended particulate matter

(FSP) Atmospheric dust or solid particulates in emission products of combustion with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less (also known as PM25) that remain suspended in ...

fine suspended particulate matter

fine suspended particulate matter   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...fine suspended particulate matter ( FSP ) Atmospheric dust or solid particulates in emission products of combustion with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less (also known as PM 25 ) that remain suspended in the atmosphere. Particles of less than 2.5 mm ( PM 2.5 ) can penetrate to the alveoli and contribute to pneumoconiosis or chronic respiratory disease. ...

fine suspended particulate matter

fine suspended particulate matter  

(FSP)Atmospheric dust or solid particulates in emission products of combustion with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less (also known as PM25) that remain suspended in the atmosphere. ...
particulate matter

particulate matter  

Fine particles that are suspended in the atmosphere. Many are of natural origin, e.g. pollen grains, fungal spores, and volcanic dust. Others are injected into the air by human activity, e.g. ...
Water-Quality Trends

Water-Quality Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,190 words
Illustration(s):
1

...[ See Irrigation .] Descriptors of water quality are physical (color, transparency, pH, temperature, and total suspended solids [ TSS ]), chemical (for water and particulates), bacteriological (total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria), and ecological (chlorophyll, biotic indices, biological oxygen demand [ BOD ]). Water quality now includes the overall quality of the aquatic ecosystem, based on the water, its suspended particulate matter, the health of the biological communities and organisms, and the nature of the riverbed. Such broad definitions...

Water Quality

Water Quality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,089 words
Illustration(s):
5

...; and Irrigation .] Descriptors of water quality include: physical (color, transparency, pH, temperature, and total suspended solids or TSS), chemical (for water and particulates), bacteriological (total coliforms and fecal coliforms), and ecological (chlorophyll, biotic indices) characteristics. An extension of water quality is now made to include the overall quality of the aquatic ecosystem, based on the water, the particulate matter, the health of the biological communities and organisms, and the nature of the riverbed. Such broader definitions also...

waste disposal methods

waste disposal methods   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls because they are difficult to burn. Combustion yields two residual products: solid ash and gases. During combustion, most ash collects at the bottom of the combustion chamber but some is carried along with the gases as particulate matter. The composition of the ash depends on the composition of the waste feed. Incineration of highly liquid wastes produces little ash, while the amount of ash produced by combustion of solid wastes can be 10–30 per cent of the original amount of waste. Ash must usually be...

Pollution

Pollution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of respiratory distresses, cardiovascular problems, and cancer. These problems can be severe enough to cause death. Of greatest concern are the respiratory and cardiovascular problems associated with ozone and fine particulates and cancer problems associated mainly with benzene, carbon tetrachloride, formaldehyde, chromium, polycyclic organic matter, and 1,3, butadiene. Many pollutants also harm terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. For example, mercury deposited into waterways is converted into mercury compounds that are easily accumulated in fish. Consumption...

Aerosols

Aerosols   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Project formed the basis of the field's first handbook. In the few decades that followed, the concerns over public health prompted researchers to study the fallout (radioactive dust) from nuclear weapon tests and the worsening photochemical smogs (a toxic “cocktail” of particulate matter and gas-phase pollutants) in densely populated cities (such as London and Los Angeles). In the 1970s, a small group of scientists made the earliest attempts to quantify the climate impacts of anthropogenic aerosols with rudimentary mathematical models. They did not agree...

Measuring Soil Loss and Subsequent Nutrient and Organic Matter Loss on Farmland

Measuring Soil Loss and Subsequent Nutrient and Organic Matter Loss on Farmland   Reference library

Vincenzo Bagarello and Vito Ferro

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
14,842 words
Illustration(s):
32

...23 ). Nutrients and Organic Matter Loss Soil erosion affects both the nutrient content of eroded sediments and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics by (a) redistribution within watersheds or transport outside of its boundaries and (b) altering SOC mineralization processes in disturbed sediments ( Gregorich, Greer, Anderson, & Liang, 1998 ; Polyakov & Lal, 2008 ). Blanco-Canqui, Gantzer, Anderson, Alberts, and Thompson ( 2004 ) suggested using 0.25-L samples from the collected runoff volume that are preliminarily stirred to suspended sediments. The samples are...

Molluscs

Molluscs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,973 words
Illustration(s):
1

...terrestrial taxa. The univalve shells are helically coiled, and most caenogastropods have a radula with rather few (2–7) teeth in each row. Caenogastropodan feeding types are extremely diverse, including grazing (e.g., Littorina ), suspension and deposit feeding on organic particulate matter ( Turritella , Cerithium ), and predation on a wide variety of other invertebrates such as bivalves ( Natica ), sea urchins ( Cassis ), sipunculans ( Mitra ), polychaetes, and in some cases other gastropods and fishes ( Conus ). The final major gastropod clade, the...

Paper

Paper   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
16,647 words

...to photodegradation as some modern works of art executed in felt-tip pen, artists’ drawing inks or coloured crayons, which may all contain fugitive organic dyes. Further environmental factors affecting paper permanence include sulphur compounds, oil and grease, particulate dirt and fine dusts. Gaseous sulphur compounds in the atmosphere form sulphuric acid in paper. Other gases, for example ozone and peroxides, are also harmful to works of art on paper, but, in addition, sulphur leads to what is probably one of the most dramatic instances of...

Fire

Fire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
10,244 words
Illustration(s):
5

...in plant tissues as plants grow. Fire consumes biomass, releasing the stored energy as heat and releasing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other elements such as sulfur and phosphorus to the atmosphere. Elements are released in two forms: as gases, or contained within particulate matter in the smoke (Raison et al., 1985). The release of these elements by fire represents a significant source of carbon and trace gases that is of concern in relation to global climate change. However, post-fire plant recovery is rapid in many fire-prone ecosystems. Post-fire...

Environmental Impacts of Tropical Soybean and Palm Oil Crops

Environmental Impacts of Tropical Soybean and Palm Oil Crops   Reference library

Kimberly M. Carlson and Rachael D. Garrett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
19,277 words
Illustration(s):
6

...burning events in both South America and Southeast Asia ( Alencar, Nepstad, & Diaz, 2006 ; Aragao et al., 2008 ; Field et al., 2009 ). The use of fire is ubiquitous in soybean expansion in South America ( DeFries et al., 2008 ; Malhi et al., 2008 ). Emissions of particulate matter from these fires have substantial negative impacts on human health. Deforestation fires contributed almost 3,000 annual premature deaths in South America from 2002 to 2011 ( Reddington et al., 2015 ). Such emissions also contribute to global warming ( DeFries et al., ...

Life Span

Life Span   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...weight outcomes . Archives of Environmental Health , 55(3), 188–194. Rogers, J. F. , Thompson, S. J. , Addy, C. L. , McKeown, R. E. , Cowen, D. J. , & Decoufle, P. (2000). Association of very low birth weight and exposures to environmental sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates . American Journal of Epidemiology , 151(6), 602–613. Russell, C. M. (1999). A meta-analysis of published research on the effects of nonmaternal care on child development . Dissertation Abstracts, International Section A, Humanities and Social Sciences , 59(9-A),...

fallout

fallout   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...fallout Descent to the earth's surface of suspended atmospheric particles. The term is used mainly in the context of radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions and accidents ( see Chernobyl ). It applies also to emissions of combusted carbon-based fuel, which can include toxic ingredients, such as trace amounts of lead, mercury, and other metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and other fine particulate matter. Worldwide, the fallout of trace amounts of lead and mercury in emissions from coal-fired power generators and furnace factories produces prodigious...

particulate matter

particulate matter   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... matter Fine particles that are suspended in the atmosphere. Many are of natural origin, e.g. pollen grains , fungal spores , and volcanic dust. Others are injected into the air by human activity, e.g. ploughing of dry soil, burning of vegetation, and the burning of fossil fuels. Small particles can be harmful to health when inhaled, because they are able to penetrate deep into the lungs. Particles smaller than 25 μ ‎m in diameter are known as PM-25; these are believed to cause a number of respiratory illnesses. Particles 10 μ ‎m in size, known as...

Shipping and Freight Indicators

Shipping and Freight Indicators   Reference library

Claude COMTOIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,818 words

...used to quantify shipping freight sustainability, depending on the nature of the environmental issue(s) identified by shipping lines. Measures for water quality, for example, may include salinity, temperature, suspended solids, and oxygen level. Air quality might be assessed by amount of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur oxide, and particulate dust. Waste measurement can include volume of nonbiodegradable marine debris, while habitat and ecosystems may be measured in terms of range of biodiversity. Reduction in consumption of water, electricity,...

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods   Reference library

David K. Wright

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,781 words
Illustration(s):
3

...sediment classes. Silts and sands are quite prone to erosion, and transport distances occur relative to kinetic forces required to keep them moving. Fine sands (0.1–0.25 mm) generally take the least sheer strength of all of the sediment classes to dislodge from a primary context, but will not be suspended as long as finer particulates subject to the same laminar force. Dunes are typically comprised of fine to medium-sized sand grains. Gravels are generally impossible to mobilize by wind, and in aqueous systems they transport along the bottom of the channel...

Middle East

Middle East   Reference library

Diana K. DAVIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,515 words

...level among men in Cairo was found to be 30 micrograms per deciliter, very high compared to US standards of the time (less than 10 micrograms per deciliter) ( PRIDE 1994 ). Cairo also has some of the worst air pollution in the world ( Kanakidou et al. 2011 ). The level of particulate matter in Cairo’s air is five to ten times higher than international health standards, was higher than the level in any other large city in the world in the mid-1990s, and still rivals that of Mexico City and Tokyo ( Hopkins and Mehanna 1997 ; Kanakidou et al. 2011 ). Large...

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