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film

Subject: History

Methodologies In the Study of Dance

Methodologies In the Study of Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
17,233 words

...of dance as it is performed may be difficult. Performers may present a dance only once during a research visit and may be unable or unwilling to replicate the performance for a notator. Because of such problems, researchers have preserved dancing on film and video; however, what is filmed and how it is filmed are culturally focused, selective processes. Notation systems exist for analyzing the physical movement of dance—for example, Labanotation, Benesh notation, and Eskhol-Wachmann notation. One can probe for meaning in a culture's dance by using a semantic...

film

film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
175 words

...between the terms film and cinema , preferring the latter and its derivatives when referring to all motion pictures, to the medium as an independent art form, to the entire motion picture industry, or to specify the film industry : as for example in the term cinematic apparatus . Film studies takes in all aspects of film and cinema, though it is usual to regard the motion picture, or the film text , as the principal starting point for inquiry and commentary ( see film studies...

short film

short film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
505 words

...film A broad category of films defined by their short running time in comparison with that of the feature film . For the purposes of the ‘Animated Short Film’ and ‘Live Action Short Film’ categories in the Academy Awards , the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as 40 minutes or less. At the Venice Film Festival, the limit set in entries in the short film category is 30 minutes. Short film formats were the dominant form in early cinema , with actualities , newsreels , serials, travel films , and animation all prominent....

film criticism

film criticism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
684 words

...and the programme notes and film journals produced for members of film societies in the 1920s and 1930s, have all the hallmarks of film criticism ( see film society ). The British film journal Sight and Sound (founded in 1934 and still in publication) has been a pioneer of in‐depth writing on film. In the 1950s, film critics André Bazin, Claude Chabrol, Jacques Rivette, Eric Rohmer, and François Truffaut, writing for the French film journal Cahiers du cinéma pioneered an internationally influential form of film criticism that celebrated the work...

film preservation

film preservation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
670 words

...a National Film Registry which oversee the selection and restoration of 25 films each year. The found footage film Decasia ( Bill Morrison , US, 2002) uses fragments of nitrate film stock in various states of decay. In film studies, film preservation is largely discussed within the wider context of film archiving, and film studies scholars are often consulted by archivists involved in film restoration. See also colourization . Further Reading: Nissen, Dan Preserve Then Show (2002). Slide, Anthony Nitrate Won't Wait: A History of Film Preservation...

film festival

film festival   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
613 words

...of colonialism ( see postcolonialism ). Studies of the film industry have examined the role of film festivals in facilitating distribution for independent film producers ( see distribution ). Indeed, many films are made with the explicit aim of being ‘discovered’ at a festival, suggesting that festivals drive film production by offering opportunities for future filmmakers. Many successful festival films are never seen in their countries of origin, and this has also been a focus of research. The Film Festivals Yearbook , published annually since 1999, is a...

film style

film style   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
353 words

...the films of Yasujiro Ozu (e.g. Tokyo Monogatari/Tokyo Story (Japan, 1953)); the jump cut in the films of the Nouvelle Vague ; low‐key and high‐contrast lighting in film noir ; natural lighting and handheld camera in direct cinema ; and high‐key lighting in films made at Hollywood's MGM studio in the 1930s ( see studio style ). The term is widely, and often loosely, used in film studies, though serious attempts to identify the components of film style were made in early explorations of film aesthetics , and subsequently in detailed studies of film...

film society

film society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
752 words

...etc.) and in the development of film studies as a discipline. Film societies have been instrumental in increasing awareness of foreign films and translating key works of film criticism and theory; and the information and debate in programme notes, lectures, workshops, and film journals, have provided useful models for subsequent film‐theoretical activity. There is also a film studies literature on a number of film society movements, taking a primarily film history approach . See also amateur film ; cinephilia ; film movement . Further Reading:...

amateur film

amateur film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
388 words

...film A set of practices of non-professional, personal, or hobbyist filmmaking, often (as home movies ) recording family and leisure activities, but also including local newsreels , films of amateur dramatic productions, home-made pornography , and films of all kinds by members of film societies . The scale and nature of amateur film is closely associated with developments in dedicated consumer technologies. While the standardization of the 16 mm film format in 1923 opened filmmaking to non-professionals, amateur film largely remained the province of...

film history

film history   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
794 words

...also bears on the partiality of film history, which has tended to focus on Western cinemas, in part because film histories can only be written for countries where films and film‐related materials have been preserved ( see film preservation ). In the 1990s and 2000s, various ‘post’ discourses ( see postmodernism ; poststructuralism ) have encouraged further reflection on the relationship between film and history, leading to approaches that attempt to bring together film‐historical and film‐theoretical frameworks. Many film historians are skeptical about...

film journal

film journal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
756 words

...Quarterly Review of Film Studies, Journal of Popular Film and Television, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Post Script, East‐West Film Journal, Film History, Quarterly Review of Film and Video, Canadian Journal of Film Studies, and Animation Journal. Since 2000, in part as a result of changes in the publishing industry (with digital production and online distribution making journals cheaper to produce), the number of film journals has expanded dramatically, and recently‐launched titles track the expansion of film studies and growth of new...

structural film

structural film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
433 words

...exploration of the illusion of space in depth created by film, is widely regarded as canonical. In Europe, structural film tended to emphasize the material qualities of the film medium (hence the term structural-materialist), foregrounding the physical attributes of celluloid , as in the found-footage Rohfilm/Raw Film ( Wilhelm and Birgit Hein , Germany, 1968 ) and the radically anti-illusionist Room Film 1973 ( Peter Gidal , UK, 1973 ) ( see film stock ). In Britain structural film was distinguished also by a preoccupation with duration ( see ...

film form

film form   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
338 words

...the formal components of a film give the work its distinctive shape and character. While an understanding of the vocabulary of filmmaking is important in understanding film form, form is not reducible to technique. Film form is sometimes considered in aesthetic terms; as, for example, when a film's formal elements are clear, consistent, and economically interwoven and the film is in consequence valued for its coherence or unity. However, the degree of formal unity (or disunity) in a film may be a matter of convention : less unity or formal tightness might be...

action film

action film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
654 words

...action film par excellence . The action film is strongly associated with the adventure film , with swashbucklers, pirate films, historical epic films , and safari films all popular from the 1910s. The Douglas Fairbanks vehicle, The Gaucho ( F. Richard Jones , US, 1927 ), was described in contemporary reviews as an ‘action-adventure’ film and films such as The Adventures of Robin Hood ( Michael Curtiz and William Keighley , US, 1938 ), starring Errol Flynn, contain all the elements normally associated with the contemporary genre. The Bond films of the...

film school

film school   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
358 words

...Film and Television School in Britain (Terence Davis, Nick Park, Lynne Ramsay, Ridley Scott); and the Beijing Film Academy in China (Zhang Yimou, Chen Kaige, Zhang Yuan). The philosophies of contemporary film schools are various, but they are generally geared towards fostering cross‐fertilization between filmmaking and film criticism . As such, it is common for the academic curriculum to focus on film history , especially the work of particular directors and/or films considered to be of lasting artistic value ( see authorship ; canon ). Film...

film studies

film studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
1,441 words

... studies ( cinema studies , cinematology , screen studies ) Scholarly inquiry into, and academic study of, cinema , film , and films. The earliest serious critical writings on film and cinema began to appear soon after the birth of the medium itself; and the 1920s saw the publication of the first historical accounts of cinema and the launch of a number of critical journals and other publications devoted entirely to the medium ( see film criticism ; film journal ; film society ; film theory ). By the end of the 1930s, the notion of including film...

cult film

cult film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
550 words

...cult audiences to appropriate a wide variety of film from around the world, while the internet facilitates communication between cult film enthusiasts. It is also common for cult film fans to travel to conventions or film festivals focused on particular films or groups of films. Cult films are usually regarded as transgressive and/or oppositional to mainstream taste. This challenge to conventional filmmaking and viewing practices comes in the form of celebration of poor craftsmanship, as in the films of US director Ed Wood, and the connoisseurship of...

feature film

feature film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
517 words

...shorts and a longer film; and the term feature film was used to draw cinemagoer's attention to a film's various ‘features’ (indeed this is the term’s original meaning): the appearance of a well‐known actor, an intriguing concept, high production values, and longer running time, with the latter connotation eventually becoming dominant. Film historians often draw a distinction between ‘feature films’ (films that were in some way a special attraction) and ‘feature-length films’ (those with longer running times). By 1915 over 600 feature films were being produced...

compilation film

compilation film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
504 words

... archive and a source of footage in the compilation film Life in a Day ( Kevin Macdonald , US/UK, 2011 ), a feature-length record of a single day, 24 July 2010, put together from over 80,000 films from 192 countries submitted via YouTube . Commonly styled found footage , films compiled from random pieces of discarded footage from a variety of sources are a mainstay of avant-garde film . In film studies, the compilation film is usually treated as part of the history of documentary and propaganda film , with Shub's oeuvre figuring also in studies of...

film industry

film industry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
821 words

...media residuals). The film industry is currently seeking ways to exploit new technologies and to combat piracy ( see download ). The particular commercial model typified by the Hollywood studio system has been influential worldwide, but it is not unique. Alternative film‐industrial models in the postwar era include state‐sponsored ( see east germany, film in ; north korea, film in ; ussr, film in the ) and state‐subsidized ( see britain, film in ; cuba, film in ; france, film in ; norway, film in ). It is possible to make films outwith these...

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