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film

Subject: History

Methodologies In the Study of Dance

Methodologies In the Study of Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
17,233 words

...of dance as it is performed may be difficult. Performers may present a dance only once during a research visit and may be unable or unwilling to replicate the performance for a notator. Because of such problems, researchers have preserved dancing on film and video; however, what is filmed and how it is filmed are culturally focused, selective processes. Notation systems exist for analyzing the physical movement of dance—for example, Labanotation, Benesh notation, and Eskhol-Wachmann notation. One can probe for meaning in a culture's dance by using a semantic...

film

film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
184 words

...distinction between the terms film and cinema , preferring the latter and its derivatives when referring to all motion pictures, to the medium as an independent art form, to the entire motion picture industry, or to specify the film industry : as for example in the term cinematic apparatus . Film studies takes in all aspects of film and cinema, though it is usual to regard the motion picture, or the film text , as the principal starting point for inquiry and commentary ( see film studies...

short film

short film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
510 words

...film A broad category of films defined by their short running time in comparison with that of the feature film . For the purposes of the ‘Animated Short Film’ and ‘Live Action Short Film’ categories in the Academy Awards , the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as forty minutes or less. At the Venice Film Festival, the limit set in entries in the short film category is thirty minutes or less. Short film formats were the dominant form in early cinema , with actualities , newsreels , serials, travel films , and animation ...

film preservation

film preservation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
683 words

...Board and a National Film Registry which oversee the selection and restoration of twenty-five films each year. Filmmakers have also been drawn to old film for aesthetic reasons: the found footage film Decasia ( Bill Morrison , US, 2002) uses fragments of nitrate film stock in various states of decay. In film studies, film preservation is largely discussed within the wider context of film archiving and film history, and film studies scholars are often consulted by archivists involved in film restoration. See also colourization . Further Reading:...

film style

film style   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
385 words

...the films of Yasujiro Ozu (e.g. Tōkyō Monogatari/Tokyo Story (Japan, 1953)); the jump cut in the films of the Nouvelle Vague ; low-key and high-contrast lighting in film noir ; natural lighting and handheld camera in direct cinema ; and high-key lighting in films made at Hollywood’s MGM studio in the 1930s ( see studio style ). The term is widely, and often loosely, used in film studies, though serious attempts to identify the components of film style were made in early explorations of film aesthetics , and subsequently in detailed studies of film...

film society

film society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
793 words

...workshops, and film journals, have provided useful models for subsequent film-theoretical activity. There is also a film studies literature on a number of film society movements, taking a primarily film history approach . See also amateur film ; cinephilia ; film movement . Further Reading: MacDonald, Scott Cinema 16: Documents Toward a History of the Film Society (2002). MacDonald, Richard Lowell MacDonald The Appreciation of Film: The Postwar Film Society Movement and Film Culture in Britain (2016). Sexton, Jamie , ‘The Film Society and the...

film festival

film festival   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
674 words

...Film Festival (1963) in the US, and the Toronto International Film Festival (1976) and Montreal Film Festival (1977) in Canada, boast international status. The Hong Kong International Film Festival (HKIFF) (1977) is the longest running in East Asia; and, with the development of extensive distribution networks in the region in the 1990s, there are now also big-budget festivals in China (Shanghai International Film Festival, 1993) and South Korea (Busan International Film Festival (BIFF), 1996). There are also a host of small and more specialized film...

film archive

film archive   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
983 words

...these were simply disposed of because they were difficult and dangerous to store (nitrate film stock is extremely combustible, as evidenced by the fire that destroyed one of MGM’s film storage vaults in 1965, leading to the loss of hundreds of silent films) ( see film preservation ; mexico, film in ) or were deemed to have no future value (before the advent of ancillary markets in television , film producers had little incentive to keep films). Before the 1930s, film archiving was largely undertaken in an ad hoc manner by private collectors and...

structural film

structural film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
471 words

...exploration of the illusion of space in depth created by film, is widely regarded as canonical. In Europe, structural film tended to emphasize the material qualities of the film medium (hence the term structural-materialist), foregrounding the physical attributes of celluloid , as in the found-footage Rohfilm/Raw Film ( Wilhelm and Birgit Hein , Germany, 1968 ) and the rigorously anti-illusionist Room Film 1973 ( Peter Gidal , UK, 1973 ) ( see film stock ). In Britain structural film was distinguished also by a preoccupation with duration (...

film school

film school   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
406 words

...Lynne Ramsay, Ridley Scott); and the Beijing Film Academy in China (Zhang Yimou, Chen Kaige, Zhang Yuan) ( see fifth generation ). The philosophies of contemporary film schools are various, but they are generally geared towards fostering cross-fertilization between filmmaking and film criticism . As such, it is common for the academic curriculum to focus on film history , especially the work of particular directors and/or films considered to be of lasting artistic value ( see authorship ; canon ). Film schools often command high tuition fees and...

film form

film form   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
354 words

...the formal components of a film give the work its distinctive shape and character. While an understanding of the vocabulary of filmmaking is important in understanding film form, form is not reducible to technique. Film form is sometimes considered in aesthetic terms; as, for example, when a film’s formal elements are clear, consistent, and economically interwoven and the film in consequence is valued for its coherence or unity. However, the degree of formal unity (or disunity) in a film may be a matter of convention : less unity or formal tightness might...

film criticism

film criticism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
764 words

...and the programme notes and film journals produced for members of film societies in the 1920s and 1930s, have all the hallmarks of film criticism ( see film society ). The British film journal Sight and Sound (founded in 1934 and still in publication) has been a pioneer of in-depth film criticism. In the 1950s, film critics André Bazin, Claude Chabrol, Jacques Rivette, Eric Rohmer, and François Truffaut, writing for the French film journal Cahiers du cinéma , pioneered an internationally influential form of film criticism that celebrated the work...

film history

film history   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
845 words

...for film historians because many early films have not survived or survive in a fragile state ( see film archive ; film preservation ). The issue of evidence also bears on the partiality of film history, which has tended to focus on Western cinemas, in part because film histories can only be written for countries and regions where films and film-related materials have been preserved. Early works of film history such as Terry Ramsaye’s A Million and One Nights: A History of the Motion Picture ( 1926 ) and Benjamin Hampton’s History of the American Film...

portmanteau film

portmanteau film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
225 words

...film ( anthology film , omnibus film ) A film consisting of several shorter films, usually tied together by a central theme or idea or by a linking event. In some portmanteau films all parts have a single director, as in La Ronde (France, 1950), Max Ophüls’s classic merry-go-round of love affairs set in Vienna at the turn of the 20th century. Others may involve a different director for each segment, as in Ealing Studios’ chilling Dead of Night (Alberto Cavalcanti, Charles Crichton, Basil Dearden, Robert Hamer, UK, 1945). Recent examples of the...

film-philosophy

film-philosophy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
912 words

...the ways in which films communicate and become comprehensible ( see cognitivism ). Film and philosophy intersect in several, sometimes overlapping, areas of inquiry. Firstly, films about philosophy: philosophy, philosophizing, or ethical dilemmas as themes or topics, as for example in Ma nuit chez Maude/My Night with Maud (France, 1969), one of Eric Rohmer’s fêted ‘moral tales’ series. Some film studies inquiry in the area of film and ethics draws on this approach. Secondly, films as a vehicle for philosophizing: looking at films as illustrations or...

epic film

epic film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
654 words

...epic film’s longevity ( see cinematic universe ; superhero film ). In film studies, the epic film has been examined as a distinct genre and in particular as a specific type of history film . The form has also been considered as it appears across a range of national and cultural contexts and in relation to adaptation . Further Reading: Burgoyne, Robert The Epic Film in World Culture (2010). Elliot, Andrew B. R. The Return of the Epic Film: Genre, Aesthetics and History in the Twenty-First Century (2014). Reich, Jacqueline The Maciste Films of...

feature film

feature film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
613 words

...connotation eventually becoming dominant. Film historians often draw a distinction between feature films (films that were in some way a special attraction) and feature-length films (those with longer running times). By 1915 over 600 feature films were being produced annually in the US, with an estimated 850 features made in 1918. Running times of between 65 and 120 minutes were common for studio-produced films around the world from the 1920s until the 1950s, and this is still regarded as standard length for feature films. Exhibition practices have varied over...

film studies

film studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
1,561 words

... studies ( cinema studies , cinematology , screen studies ) Scholarly inquiry into, and academic study of, cinema , film , and films. The earliest serious critical writings on film and cinema began to appear soon after the birth of the medium itself; and the 1920s saw the publication of the first historical accounts of cinema and the launch of a number of critical journals and other publications devoted entirely to the medium ( see film criticism ; film journal ; film society ; film history ; film theory ). By the end of the 1930s, the notion of...

family film

family film   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
360 words

...film 1. A type of feature film intended specifically for audiences comprising parents and children together. 2. A film or type of feature film conceived and marketed for the widest possible, often global, appeal. Typically featuring characters of all ages, family films contain little or no violent or sexual content, are rated inclusively ( see rating system ), have uncomplicated happy endings, and elicit feelings of uplift, comfort, and reassurance. Unlike children’s films , family films are usually commercially, rather than publicly, funded. The...

film industry

film industry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
941 words

...( see east germany, film in ; north korea, film in ; ussr, film in the ) and state-subsidized ( see britain, film in ; cuba, film in ; france, film in ; norway, film in ). It is also possible to make films outwith these industrial contexts, though getting films seen without the aid of a distributor can be difficult ( see crowdfunding ; practice as research ; youtube ). Early scholarly and academic writings on the film industry included pessimistic accounts by the Frankfurt School about the homogenizing effects of monopoly capitalism;...

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