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Overview

feedback

The process by which knowledge acquired from past experiences informs and alters actors' choices when they encounter similar situations. It is a central concept of cybernetics and ...

feedback

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... 1 In cybernetics , feedback occurs when some of the output from a system is isolated and fed-back as input ( see feedback mechanism ). 2 The information provided to a performer during or after an activity that enables the performer to assess the success or failure of his or her performance. Feedback is regarded by many as the single most important factor in the acquisition of skills. See also augmented feedback , false feedback , intrinsic feedback , knowledge of performance , knowledge of results , intrinsic feedback...

feedback

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A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...signal fed back to the plant input through the feedback branch ( feedback path ) to the summing junction to produce the error signal is the feedback control signal . A feedback control system is one using one or more closed loop s, i.e. where the output from the controlled plant is used by the controller to modify the plant input. Negative feedback is where the plant input is reduced by the feedback signal; positive feedback is where the plant input is increased. A feedback regulator uses feedback control so as to maintain the desired plant...

feedback

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A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
15 words

... the influence of the result of a process upon the functioning of the...

feedback

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
97 words

...feedback The use of part of the output of a system to control its performance. In positive feedback , the output is used to enhance the input; in negative feedback , the output is used to reduce the input. Many biological processes rely on negative feedback. As the population of a species expands, so its food supply per individual is diminished; the result is that the population then begins to fall. Many biochemical processes are controlled by feedback inhibition . Feedback mechanisms play an important role in maintaining a state of equilibrium within an...

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The response within a system to an action or process. Negative feedback causes the situation to revert to the original; in a river system, erosion is a negative feedback mechanism that restores stream stability by lowering channel gradient and increasing bed material size ( Nunally (1985) Env. Manage. 9, 5 ). Positive feedback causes further change: positive feedbacks involve a move away from an equilibrium state. Perry and Enright (2002) J. Biogeog. 29 note that positive feedback loops between fire and vegetation have degraded tropical...

feedback

feedback n.((in physiology))   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
87 words

... n. (in physiology) the coupling of the output of a process to the input. Feedback mechanisms are important in regulating many physiological processes; for example, the production of hormones and neurotransmitters. In negative feedback , a rise in the output of a substance will inhibit a further increase in its production, either directly or indirectly ( see negative feedback loop ). In positive feedback , a rise in the output of a substance is associated with an increase in the output of another substance, either directly or...

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A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
96 words

... Information or opinions about the performance of a product, system, intervention (e.g. a management development or training program), or employee. Important sources of feedback include clients and customers, users of a product or system, and an employee’s supervisors or fellow workers. Regular and reliable feedback is essential to employee evaluation and performance appraisal , and its absence may be detrimental to job satisfaction ( see core job characteristics ). Feedback also plays a key role in modern management philosophies of continuous...

feedback

feedback   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
106 words

... 1 any feature of a system, e.g. of a metabolic pathway or of an electronic circuit, whereby information about the output of the system is used to influence the input to that system. Such feedback may increase the input to the system – positive feedback – or reduce the input to the system – negative feedback . A cyclic system of components participating in feedback forms a feedback loop , and the system is known as a closed‐loop system . Compare open‐loop system . 2 that part of the output of an electronic, mechanical, or other system that is...

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A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Engineering and Technology
Length:
510 words
Illustration(s):
6

...given by (b) Current feedback circuit An analysis similar to that of voltage feedback can then be applied. In a multistage amplifier, feedback may be applied to each individual amplifier stage ( local feedback ) or across the composite device ( multistage feedback ). The phase of the feedback at the input is maintained in the correct relationship to the input by introducing a reactance in the feedback circuit. Capacitive feedback uses one or more capacitors and inductive feedback uses a self-inductance or a mutual inductance. Feedback is also used in...

feedback

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Response to operator input that indicates that the input has been understood and the desired action accomplished. See also acknowledgment , echoing , prompt...

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Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Information provided either during or after an activity and which enables a performer to assess how well an activity has been done. Feedback is regarded by many sports coaches as the single most important factor in training; without it, a person does not know how well he or she is progressing. Some feedback is a natural consequence of performing an activity; athletes see and feel how well the activity is being accomplished. However, the most effective feedback is often provided by an external observer (e.g. coach) or from some other objective source...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
49 words

... In technology, process by which an electronic or mechanical control system monitors and regulates itself. A governor device that restricts the speed of a vehicle regulates the fuel supply, decreasing it as speed increases. Feedback works by returning part of the ‘output’ of the system to its...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
50 words

... ( feedback system ) [Th] A concept in the archaeological application of systems theory reflecting the continually changing relationship between cultural variables and their environment. A system in which the result of a signal, or series of signals, is another signal which in turn modifies and directs the...

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Comments given about how well a task has been carried out. For example, after a social work student’s practice has been observed as evidence for her/his assessed practice portfolio, s/he will be given verbal and written feedback on her/his...

feedback

feedback  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... The process by which knowledge acquired from past experiences informs and alters actors' choices when they encounter similar situations. It is a central concept of cybernetics and information...

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A Dictionary of Organizational Behaviour

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
116 words

... The information we receive in reaction to our communication or performance. Feedback is an essential part of the communication process, as it enables us to determine whether our intended message was accurately understood. It is also essential for learning and development, enabling us to modify our behaviours on the basis of the guidance that we receive on whether our performance to date has been acceptable. Feedback incurs formally, for example through performance management appraisals, and also occurs informally, for example by the way in which...

feedback

feedback n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The return of part of a system's output to its input, usually as a means of achieving self-correction or modification of performance. In negative feedback an increase in output causes a decrease in input, as in a thermostat or other self-regulating mechanism and many homeostatic biological processes including EEG waves. In positive feedback an increase in output causes an increase in input, as in the howling of a public address system when a microphone is held too close to its loudspeaker. The term is also used informally for information...

feedback

feedback   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
379 words

... . Norbert Wiener defined feedback as “the property of being able to adjust future conduct by past performance” ( 1954 ). Feedback requires a sensing unit and a means of reacting to the value sensed, and may be applied either positively or negatively. In modern technology, feedback devices control speed, timing, pressure, and temperature. The earliest recorded example of feedback dates to ca. 250–300 b.c. when Ctesibius of Alexandria used a float to control levels in a water clock to improve its accuracy. The first modern feedback devices (ca. 1620...

feedback

feedback   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Feedback takes the form both of energy injection (typically via radiation) and injection of material, especially heavy elements created in stars and then released during supernovae. A simple example of feedback is reionization of the Universe , where the energy released is responsible for ionizing the inter-galactic medium . This is known to happen soon after the first structures form. The reionization heats the gas throughout the Universe, and this makes subsequent gravitational collapse harder. This is therefore a negative feedback where early structure...

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A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
151 words

...feedback The use of part of the output of a system to control its performance. In positive feedback , the output is used to enhance the input; an example is an electronic oscillator, or the howl produced by a loudspeaker that is placed too close to a microphone in the same circuit. A small random noise picked up by the microphone is amplified and reproduced by the loudspeaker. The microphone now picks it up again; it is further amplified, and fed from the speaker to microphone once again. This continues until the system is overloaded. In negative feedback...

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