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Overview

fascism

An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization. The term Fascism was first used of the totalitarian right-wing nationalist regime of ...

fascism

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... A political system characterized by dictatorship, strong socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and often militant nationalism and racism. N. Castree et al. ( 2012 ) describe fascism as ‘a radical and authoritarian political ideology’, but Ingham (2001) Pol. Geog. 20, 1029 finds it a ‘difficult and contentious term’. Heffernan (2005) Pol. Geog. 24, 731 provides a useful...

Fascism

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,044 words

...between World War I and World War II have often been described as the “era of fascism.” With the defeat of the fascist regimes in World War II, fascism has apparently disappeared as a major political phenomenon, a threat to the international order. Yet, given the right crisis, fascism, or at least fascist-style regimes, could once again emerge. Fascism has been difficult to define in part because its ideology varied so widely. It was often easier to understand what fascism was against than what it stood for. Fatherland, flag and country, old-fashioned...

fascism

fascism n.   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... n. 1 an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization. 2 (in general use) extreme right-wing, authoritarian, or intolerant views or practice. The term fascism was first used of the totalitarian right-wing nationalist regime of Benito Mussolini in Italy ( 1922–43 ), and the regime of the Nazis in Germany were also Fascist. Fascism tends to include a belief in the supremacy of one national or ethnic group, a contempt for democracy, an insistence on obedience to a powerful leader, and a strong demagogic...

fascism

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
148 words

... . Political doctrine combining ethnic nationalism with the totalitarian view that the state should control all aspects of social life. Fascism is thus opposed both to liberalism—individual liberty and fulfilment being held to be relative to the nation's, rather than vice versa—and to communism—class-identity and aspirations being held to threaten national unity. Fascism has presented itself as a tempting conclusion from three apparently plausible premisses: the relativity of values to a culture; the rootedness of culture in the social life of a...

Fascism

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
82 words

... Italian political movement and later political party, founded in 1919 in reaction to the post‐war political settlement. It is principally associated with Benito Mussolini ( 1883–1945 ), who seized power in 1922 . Though totalitarian in its aims and operations, at least until the alliance with Nazi Germany ( 1938 ) the regime did not consistently demand ideological conformity from the literary establishment. In its early years Fascism attracted the support of Filippo Marinetti , Giuseppe Ungaretti , and Luigi Pirandello...

Fascism

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Claudio G. Segrè

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,091 words

...between World War I and World War II have often been described as the “era of fascism.” With the defeat of the fascist regimes in World War II, fascism has apparently disappeared as a major political phenomenon, a threat to the international order. Yet, given the right crisis, fascism, or at least fascist-style regimes, could once again emerge. Fascism has been difficult to define, in part because its ideology varied so widely. It was often easier to understand what fascism was against than what it stood for. Fatherland, flag and country, old-fashioned...

Fascism

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
142 words

...In its early years Fascism attracted the support of Filippo Marinetti , Giuseppe Ungaretti , and Luigi Pirandello . Writers generally considered anti‐Fascist include Vasco Pratolini ( 1913–91 ), Ignazio Silone , and Elio Vittorini . The nationalist element of Fascism led to the promotion of the cult of writers as diverse as Dante and d'Annunzio...

Fascism

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
935 words

...from fascism. All participants in the controversy accept that fascism never succeeded in France; there is nothing comparable to what happened in Italy and Germany. French fascism, even widely defined, never won power or really widespread support. Fascism is a phenomenon of the period between the two World Wars, whose pre‐ 1914 origins and post‐ 1945 penumbra can be analysed, as long as it is remembered that they are not identical with it. Bonapartism and Boulangism were successful, but were at best forerunners, whose relationship with fascism is remote...

fascism

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Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
423 words

...World War II. The Fascist Falangists also played an important role in the Spanish civil war of 1936–1939 . Fascism emerged as a broad-based rejection of the existing political orders, including liberalism , democracy , communism , and, somewhat more tentatively, monarchism. In opposing the rationalism and materialism of such systems, fascism praised the vitalism of the organic community and called for a radical assertion of national will. Fascism is perhaps best seen as a combination of conservative belief in the racial nation with modern faith in...

Fascism

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
744 words

...wrote from abroad out of necessity. In the late 1930s, however, with its increasing conservatism, imperialism, and alliance with Nazi Germany, Fascism lost much of its appeal, particularly for younger writers, such as Vittorini and Pratolini , who either sought to push it back to its supposedly radical origins or crossed over to anti-Fascism. But there were writers who supported Fascism to the end. Second, Fascism influenced literature by using the machinery of the state to curtail the activities of oppositional or dissident publishers, suppressing them or...

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
215 words

...aims. In its ideal, people, state, and party were harmoniously united, while economy and society could be centrally directed. Fascism took root first in Italy, forming the ideology for Mussolini’s government ( 1922–43 ) and was furthered under Hitler in Germany (until the end of the Second World War) and under Franco ( 1936–75 ) in Spain. Although it can be argued that Iraq’s Ba’athist regime ( 1968–2003 ) sustained fascism after the Second World War, in its core manifestation it did not survive beyond the 1970s. Nonetheless, elements of fascist ideology...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
258 words

... A political ideology of the first half of the 20th century, the central belief of which was that the individual should be subjugated to the needs of the state, which in turn should be directed by a strong leader embodying the will of the nation. It arose in opposition to communism but adopted totalitarian styles of propaganda, organization, and violence. The word (from the Roman fasces ) was first used by the Fascio di Combattimento in Italy in 1919 . Mussolini shaped fascism into a potent political force in Italy and Hitler developed a more...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
163 words

... Political movement founded in Italy by Benito Mussolini ( 1919 ), characterized by nationalism , totalitarianism and anti-communism. The term also applied to the regimes of Adolf Hitler in Germany ( 1933 ), and Francisco Franco in Spain ( 1936 ). A reaction to the Russian Revolution ( 1917 ) and the spread of communist influence, the movement based its appeal on the fear of financial instability among the middle classes and on a wider social discontent. Basic to fascist ideas were glorification of the state and total subordination to its...

Fascism

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
400 words

...Fascists encouraged domestic industrial self‐sufficiency (not least to improve the nation's prospects in wartime), and tried with some success to regulate economic supply and demand. In contrast to Communism, however, Fascism was not principally opposed to private property, despite the existence of some anti‐ capitalist tendencies . Fascism was anti‐liberal and anti‐democratic, and once in power it was reliant on an authoritarian state machine in order to remain in power. Since the end of World War II there have been a number of neo‐Fascist popular movements...

fascism

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Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...were liberal democracy and, above all, communism . Some western political scientists, strongly influenced by fascism's enmity with communism, have generally classified it as a radical right-wing movement (in this, they followed the original communist analysis). In fact this classification is misleading: fascism was a brew of both right-wing and left-wing elements, the particular mix varying from country to country and from phase to phase. Fascism was not so much the opposite of communism as its rival, offering an alternative radical vision for rebuilding the...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
870 words

...power, have become the archetypes of fascism in place of their Italian equivalents. Naturally, there were many variations on the fascist themes current in inter-war Europe, and these are concisely discussed in Eugen Weber , Varieties of Fascism , 1964. Striking as this broadening of reference and change of archetype has been, it has not aroused much controversy, at least in sociological circles. Certainly, it has not provoked nearly as much controversy as that which has raged around the causes and significance of fascism in general, and of its temporary...

fascism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
114 words

... (Latin, fasces , the bundle of rods and axe carried before Roman consuls as insignia of authority) The loose amalgam of aspirations and influences crystallized in the early 20th-century governments of Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany, and General Franco in Spain. Elements include nationalism; hostility to ideals of equality; hatred of minorities, degenerates, and deviants; élitism; hostility towards the ideals of liberalism , and in particular towards freedom of expression; the cult of the charismatic leader or Übermensch ; belief in the...

Fascism

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The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,872 words

... Fascism is a political ideology driven by a vision of the nation's total rebirth from decadence (its “palingenesis”; see Griffin 1995 ). In the interwar period it typically assumed a charismatic ritual form of politics that for some scholars is reminiscent of Early Modern millenarian movements, and for others represents an outstanding example of modern “political religion.” Moreover, in some of its manifestations fascism has apparently exhibited a deep concern with nature and even with ecological issues. Both “religion” and “nature,” the principal themes...

Fascism

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Jane Slaughter

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,262 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Fascism. National histories and economic, social, and political conditions produced a variety of fascisms. The Italian Fascist Party ( PNF ) and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP, or the Nazi Party), the largest parties, held power for a significant period of time. Because of their political success and the breadth and depth of their programs and ideologies, they are understandably at the center of studies of fascism. Other movements were often influenced by the Italian and German regimes, and the entire phenomenon of fascism was part...

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The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
390 words

... . Joining the chorus of protesters in Canada during the Great Depression were disparate groups of noisy fascists. Chief among them was Adrien Arcand , a Montreal-born French-Canadian journalist whose Parti national social chrétien enjoyed, in and outside Quebec, a brief notoriety before succumbing in 1940 to a government crackdown under the Defence of Canada Regulations of the War Measures Act . Arcand's fascist posturing began with something called L'Ordre patriotique des goglus, which advertised, in its various press organs— Le Goglu , Le...

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