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factory system

The ‘factory system’ has been an important element in the accelerating processes of industrialization known as the industrial revolution. As British industrial enterprises expanded in the ...

factory system

factory system   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... system A concentration of the processes of manufacturing—fixed capital, raw material, and labour—under one roof, in order to provide the mass production of a standardized product or products. Ngai and Smith (2007) Work Employment Soc. 21 comment on China’s ‘unique factory system—a workforce of permanently young...

factory system

factory system   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... system . Often regarded as the archetypal symbol of Britain's industrial revolution, the factory system is neither easily categorized nor explained [ see *industrialization, 14 ]. As centralized locations of manufacturing, diverse in both scale and function, factories were common to many industries. The conspicuous phenomenon of this period was the mechanized textile factory. Cotton-spinning factories proliferated from the 1780s, power-loom weaving from the 1820s. Flax and worsted mechanized production intensified at the same time, while mechanized...

factory system

factory system   Reference library

R. Angus Buchanan

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
495 words

... system . The ‘factory system’ has been an important element in the accelerating processes of industrialization which have become known as the industrial revolution . As British industrial enterprises expanded in the 18th cent., recruiting more workers and investing in expensive tools and equipment, it became important to develop a more tightly organized and disciplined form of production than the traditional method of employing workers in small workshops or their own homes—as in the ‘domestic system’ which had operated satisfactorily for several...

factory system

factory system   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
278 words

... system The ‘factory system’ has been an important element in the accelerating processes of industrialization known as the industrial revolution . As British industrial enterprises expanded in the 18th cent., it became important to develop a more tightly organized form of production than the traditional method of employing workers in small workshops or their own homes—as in the ‘ domestic system ’. The solution was the construction of large manufacturing establishments, in which the work‐force could be closely controlled and strict conditions of...

factory system

factory system   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
113 words

... system A system of manufacturing involving the concentration of materials, fixed capital, and a labour-force, in one or more workplaces or plants. The reasons why factory production developed and largely displaced scattered domestic manufacture are a matter of debate in economic and social history. As a productive system it possesses three main types of efficiency gains for the owner or controller: economic, by allowing advantages of scale, while reducing the costs of distribution of raw materials and finished product; technical, by making possible the...

Factory System

Factory System   Reference library

Thomas Dublin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... System The shift of manufacturing from hand to machine processes was a central element of the Industrial Revolution that transformed the early modern economy and contributed to the emergence of modern industrial capitalism. The coming of the modern factory led to a tremendous increase in labor productivity, which contributed, in turn, to a rising standard of living, an increasingly complex division of labor, growing agricultural production, and a massive rural-to-urban population shift. It is no exaggeration to characterize the factory system as the...

Factory System.

Factory System.   Reference library

Thomas Dublin

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
876 words

...Factory System. The shift of manufacturing from hand to machine processes was a central element of the Industrial Revolution that transformed the early modern economy and contributed to the emergence of modern industrial capitalism . The coming of the modern factory led to a tremendous increase in labor productivity , which contributed, in turn, to a rising standard of living, an increasingly complex division of labor, growing agricultural production, and a massive rural-to-urban population shift. It is no exaggeration to characterize the factory system as...

Factory System

Factory System   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,690 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The goals of this system were to reduce waste by reducing inventories, identifying bottlenecks more quickly, and tightening quality control. In addition, the system helped to increase design and production flexibility by making it economical to introduce new products more frequently and produce them in smaller batches. It remains to be seen whether flexible mass production represents the future of the factory system in the advanced industrial economies. Understanding the Triumph of the Factory System Traditionally, the factory system has been understood as...

factory system

factory system noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
56 words
factory system

factory system  

The ‘factory system’ has been an important element in the accelerating processes of industrialization known as the industrial revolution. As British industrial enterprises expanded in the 18th cent., ...
Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...starting at Cromford in 1771 , with a ‘packaged’ system of production that was soon copied in many parts of northern England and Lowland Scotland. These new cotton mills produced cheap clothing and household textiles for the mass of the population and so greatly improved standards of personal hygiene and domestic comfort. See Stanley D. Chapman , The Early Factory Masters: The Transition to the Factory in the Midlands Textile Industry (repr. 1993). Historians have emphasized the ways in which factory workers were subject to an unprecedented discipline....

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...urbanization is not in itself the major preoccupation of those concerned with the social repercussions of industrialization. The argument has always revolved around the rise of disruptive new patterns of work, the *factory system , and machine-driven production. Probably fewer than 12 per cent of the British workforce was employed in factories by 1850 , and as late as 1871 the average size of a manufacturing establishment was under twenty employees. Indeed, craft and unmechanized trades were still the most numerous; there were more shoemakers than...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...also ‘ornamental’, displaying the highest principles of design according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The clearest examples of early legislative assertiveness at the expense of common law tradition and practice—a process which was substantially under way by the 1830s—may be seen in the new administrative bodies created by the Poor Law Amendment Act and Factory Act [ see *poor laws and *factory system ]. But a gradual failure of the common law tradition can also be perceived in the areas of civil litigation and criminal law. In both these spheres, as in the connected areas of local government, labour conditions, and the management of the poor, the limited...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of effective home consumer demand. Even if by the early Victorian age—arguably the peak decades of industrial transformation—economic dynamism was primarily associated with steam-powered factories and also with the pumping out of heavy industrial products and capital goods (coal, iron, steel, chemicals, steam engines, railways, ships, machine tools, and factory plant), the initial industrial quickening from around 1760 is said to have involved first and foremost a growing capacity to meet rising demand by boosting output of fairly familiar and...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...produced by writers but whose whole belonged to the publisher. Their design was formed not by the literary inspiration of the hacks who scribbled the copy but by the publisher's sense of the market. Without means and control, writers became manufacturers of components in the factory of literature. Such fragmentation undermined the integrity of writers, who came to bear only a marginal relation to the works they helped to produce. What they wrote was not properly theirs: it was designed by another and had value only as part of a larger whole. They had no...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it, that had laid the foundation for what was later to be known as ‘free trade imperialism’. Domestically, however, Ricardian logic pointed to the benefits which a heavily populated island could derive from embracing a policy of exchanging the products of its new workshops and factories for food and raw materials, rather than having recourse to increasingly inferior land at home. Although Malthus appreciated all the steps in this argument and was in many respects to remain more faithful to Smith's enterprise than Ricardo, he became a reluctant apostate on the...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Dissenters in 1787–90 and the Irish Catholics in the 1820s, and the huge campaign to abolish the slave trade in 1788–92 and to abolish *slavery [6] itself in the early 1830s. There were also dozens of smaller and less well-organized campaigns in support of temperance, factory reforms, and educational reforms, as well as in defence of particular economic interests. As in public meetings, women often participated prominently in these lobbying groups. Members of the working classes could not afford to mount such expensive and sophisticated lobbying...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as men. Other schools of this period include the Ragged Schools (charitable foundations which provided a basic education and industrial training for the urban poor), schools run by the †Poor Law guardians after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 , and schools which factory and colliery owners were obliged to keep (after the Acts of 1833 and 1842 ) in order to provide two hours of schooling six days a week for their child workers aged 9 to 13. The numerous private schools were often ephemeral, many of them dismissed contemptuously as ‘dame...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to draw them into the new regime of self-sufficiency when, as she found in Cheshire, the weekly subscription for benefit clubs (around 1½ d. in 1791 ) was almost beyond their means: More had to give widows their subscription money secretly. Women's employment in workshops and factories roused fears of social disintegration. Uneasiness about the proper bounds of female labour was perhaps resolved in the idealism of cottage scenes, but it signified a more general difficulty in reconciling understandings of social difference (what did it mean to be poor?) with...

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