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Overview

face-to-face interaction

*Synchronous social interaction between individuals co-present in the same physical location, normally through speech and nonverbal communication. It is a particular concern in social ...

face-to-face interaction

face-to-face interaction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
106 words

...-to-face interaction Synchronous social interaction between individuals co-present in the same physical location, normally through speech and nonverbal communication . It is a particular concern in social psychology and sociolinguistics , and a primary focus for Goffman ( see also face-work ; interchange ). In sociological terms, such a concern reflects a microsocial level of analysis ( see microsociology ). Face-to-face speech communication is traditionally phenomenally privileged (as in Plato) as the most meaningful mode of human ...

face-to-face interaction

face-to-face interaction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
47 words

...-to-face interaction The process in which co-present individuals influence each other's actions; or, as it is defined by Erving Goffman (in The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life , 1959 ), ‘the reciprocal influence of individuals upon one another's actions when in one another's immediate physical...

face-to-face interaction

face-to-face interaction  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
*Synchronous social interaction between individuals co-present in the same physical location, normally through speech and nonverbal communication. It is a particular concern in social psychology and ...
On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subject to harassment, and face physical and psychological threats. They also shy away from involvement to avoid accusations of political corruption due to the negative image of politicians in their respective societies. 4 Hence the process of empowering women politically has to go hand in hand with democratization and the dis-empowerment of the authoritarian regimes of the region. This should start by re-negotiating the power allocated to the state. It necessitates a re-formation of the conceptual tools starting from the definition of power to a more...

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development   Reference library

Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,229 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...There is no sound source for the organization of our spiritual life except Islam. There is no way but to establish both sides, spiritual and social, on the foundation peculiar to Islam. Moreover, the two sides are not isolated from one another but interact to a great degree. This interaction makes it more sound and harmonious to set up the two on one base given the unmistakeable inter-connection of spiritual social activities in the life of man. Preface to second printing of M. B. Al-Sadr, Iqtisāduna, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1974. Translated by John J....

Adaptation of Islamic Jurisprudence to Modern Social Needs

Adaptation of Islamic Jurisprudence to Modern Social Needs   Reference library

Subhī Mahmasānī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,780 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...during certain periods of Islamic history. This was done to serve and support certain policies or factions, or to popularize storytelling or to achieve other purposes. Consequently, the traditions became impossibly numerous. Many unreliable and absurd traditions could not possibly stand in logic and reason. Faced with this situation, Muslim jurists began to study and examine them. They laid down a set of scientific rules by which to judge and determine their authenticity. These rules came to constitute a special science called the Science of Traditional...

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print   Reference library

Harold Love

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,956 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...word to various forms of mechanical and electronic reproduction did not, in many cases, make much difference either to the attitudes of the worker or to how the product was used by its purchaser; but there are ways in which the effect of the ‘meaningful surface’ of MSS differs from that created by *typography or electronography. The most ambitious attempt to theorize those differences is that of the Jesuit scholar *Ong , for whom the chirographic text embodies a presence-rich ‘secondary orality’, anchoring it firmly in the world of human interaction. In...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...system of poor relief, which came into existence in 1795 , offered outdoor poor relief to wage-earners only if the price of bread dropped below a minimum, or if the labourer's children exceeded a number maintainable on his wages [ see *poverty, 12 ]. The interaction of the Speenhamland system with the practice of waste enclosure produced an immediate deterioration of labourer's living conditions. The attack on customary rights also caused numbers of workers to leave their homes and villages in search of employment; hence the great abundance of wanderers...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Heroines face conflicts between parental ambition or despotism and romantic inclination, and between their own social delusions and their true (and sometimes misguided) affections. The success of Susan *Ferrier 's first novel, entitled simply Marriage ( 1818 ), is representative of the growing appeal of novels which trace not just courtship but also consequences; the two-generational plot of Marriage , indebted most immediately to Inchbald's A Simple Story , uses highly conventional contrasts between mother and daughter, daughter and twin, to convey the...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...). Nevertheless, Moses does have a special relationship with God and challenges to his role are not countenanced. 13. God communicates to and through Moses often in Numbers; indeed, 7:89 speaks of Moses' contact with God in an almost routinized way. In 12:8 God himself claims for Moses a unique face-to-face encounter. Moses actually ‘beholds the form of the Lord ’ and lives to tell about it. One facet of this relationship is especially remarkable: the genuine interaction between them as they engage issues confronting the wandering community....

Esther

Esther   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Carol Meyers

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,114 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...story in Genesis and the book of Daniel, it is a fictional piece of prose writing involving the interaction between foreigners and Hebrews/Jews. In all these works, the Jews have low status, are threatened, and at the end achieve success and a rise in status. The plots of these tales depict only one series of events, all occurring within a limited time period. Esther's similarity to Daniel and to the Joseph tale, especially with many lexical connections to the latter, may be the result of all three of these novellas also being ‘royal courtier tales’ (see ...

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue   Reference library

Ullah Jan Abid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,474 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...elements in common with western democratic institutions, such as elections to determine public opinion; but, if it genuinely reflects Islamic goals and priorities, it will be quite different in key respects. Most importantly, Muslims’ primary goal is to develop, establish and nurture a society driven by Faith. The structure of government becomes secondary to this goal. Unfortunately, each of the major Muslim governments has drifted from this foundation and the Muslim world faces a two-pronged crisis of Faith: a general lack of Faith among the masses, and...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...lowering of death rates, interpreted as the result of a complex interaction of factors. At present it is not clear to what extent the lowering of death rates through improved health was the result of an autonomous decline in the virulence of disease or of increased resistance of human hosts to infection as a result of better food supplies and improved environmental conditions. It may well have been a combination of the two. But these were not effects confined solely to England and Wales or even to continental Europe, and showed few signs of having been...

Between Alexandria and Antioch: Jews and Judaism in the Hellenistic Period

Between Alexandria and Antioch: Jews and Judaism in the Hellenistic Period   Reference library

Leonard J. Greenspoon

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,478 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in other biblical literature, to enter into the often anguished minds of the protagonists, from whom they learn that all Jews, being underdogs (for it was not just Jewish females who labored in disadvantaged circumstances), needed to take a stand and that each instance of danger needed to be faced decisively. Ultimate success would come in no other way. Another characteristic shared by these novels (and the book of Daniel as well) relates specifically to their historicity. They contain what appear to be historical notices that contradict...

Liberation Theology: Latin America

Liberation Theology: Latin America   Reference library

M. Daniel Carroll R.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,826 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

..., on the way and in interaction with everyday life in all its dimensions. These boys ‘on the way’ in the Chimaltenango Province of Guatemala are carrying corn (maize) crops. Jorgen Schytte/Still Pictures. One of the earliest and best-known discussions on Latin American hermeneutics came from Segundo, who elaborated the now celebrated liberationist version of the ‘hermeneutical circle’. This circle contains four elements. First, a new way of experiencing one's context from the perspective of the oppressed leads to an ideological suspicion...

Job

Job   Reference library

James L. Crenshaw and James L. Crenshaw

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...survive a face-to-face encounter with God. If Job can appear before God and live to tell it, he will have been vindicated. That is true regardless of how 42:6 is understood. Job's use of yĕšû ῾ â (salvation) instead of the earlier tiqwâ (hope) emphasizes the finished deed, a reality as opposed to an anticipated event. vv. 18–19 , judicial terminology abounds here: mišpāṭ, ṣedeq , and rîb . Job imagines that he will achieve vindication through litigation, acting in his own defence, and then he welcomes death. ( 13:20–7 ) Job makes an appeal to God lest...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...interaction which plebeians like Southcott, Clare, and Egan had to endure if they were to succeed in a national arena. The support of patrons from the superior classes, though essential, was often obtained at a heavy cost. In a counter-revolutionary climate, this generally included having to exercise personal deference and to espouse politically conservative sentiments. True, there is reason to believe that Southcott, Clare, and Egan were all in their own ways natural conservatives, inclined, like so many of Britain's labouring and middling sort, to give...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... not face the dilemma that wracked so many later Muslim intellectuals—how to advocate modernization without encouraging servility to the West and discouraging confidence in one's own cultural resources. 63 By the final decades of the nineteenth century, the dilemmas created by European imperial expansion and the recognized need for modernization made a “middle position” much more difficult. The alternatives were, in general terms, to...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of doctrine admitteth no other demonstration.’ Anyone who took this view to be a statement of fact, as Stewart, Jeffrey, and many others of their contemporaries did, was then faced with the apparent conclusion that belief in the introspective method would actually prevent the application to the ‘science of mind’ of those experimental procedures of the natural sciences that Stewart wished to adopt. The doctrine of introspectionism, as it then stood, seemed to be both a formidable barrier to the development of scientific psychology and its indispensable...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

Kathleen M. O'Connor and Kathleen M. O'Connor

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pity ( v. 7 ). In the face of this interpretation of events, the people have to choose, in Deuteronomistic terms ( Deut 30:11–20 ), between life and death ( v. 8 ). To survive, their only choice is surrender to Babylon. Political and theological perspectives of the narrator are absolutely clear. Only one path will lead to life: surrender and co-operation with the invaders. This alone will enable the community to gain their lives as the ‘prize of war’ ( v. 9 ). Any other political or military course will bring death, ‘For I have set my face against this city’,...

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