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externalism

Subject: Philosophy

1 In the philosophy of mind and language, the view that what is thought, or said, or experienced, is essentially dependent on aspects of the world external to the mind of the ...

externality

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A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... A side effect on others following from the actions of an individual or group. This effect is not brought by those affected and may be unwished for. Two types of externality are recognized: public behaviour externalities covering property, maintenance, crime, and public behaviour, and status externalities resulting from the social and ethnic standing of the...

externality

externality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
200 words

...except possibly on grounds of income distribution. See also compensation for externalities ; consumption externality ; internalizing externalities ; network externality ; production externality...

externality

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A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A cost or benefit to an economic agent that is not matched by a compensating financial flow. In business, externalities can be defined as those economic effects of an entity that are not recorded in its accounts as they do not arise from individual transactions. Because externalities give rise to market failure , they are a principal reason for legal or regulatory intervention, notably in banking. It is usually argued that governments should take steps to internalize external diseconomies, such as pollution, by means of taxation or other...

externality

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A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
153 words

... A cost or benefit to an economic agent that is not matched by a compensating financial flow. For example, siting a railway station close to a housing estate represents an externality to householders on that estate. It is an external economy if the householders benefit from shorter journey times to work (and consequent rising house prices) and an external diseconomy if the noise of trains keeps them awake at night. In business, externalities can be defined as those economic effects of an entity that are not recorded in its accounts as they do not arise...

externality

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A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
156 words

... A cost or benefit to an economic agent that is not matched by a compensating financial flow. For example, siting a railway station close to a housing estate represents an externality to householders on that estate. It is an external economy if the householders benefit from shorter journey times to work (and consequent rising house prices) and an external diseconomy if the noise of trains keeps them awake at night. In business, externalities can be defined as those economic effects of an entity that are not recorded in its accounts as they do not arise...

externality

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A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
87 words

... A situation where the effect of production or consumption of goods or services may have positive or negative consequences for an unrelated party. An example of a negative externality could be, for instance, where pollution from an industrial plant impacts on agricultural land and may damage plant life and affect the livelihood of farmers nearby. An example of a positive externality might be the growing of apple trees, which also provide a good source of nectar for bees to help make honey, thus benefiting a...

externality

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
180 words

...are termed ‘externalities’. Policy problems implicit in social and environmental externalities in market economies are conventionally addressed by economists in the form of strategies for assigning market values to non-market variables and so ‘internalizing’ them, for example through taxation of pollution or scarce-resource use. Recent developments in environmental economics tend to exhibit the limitations of the concept of externality in the face of the systemic character of environmental-economic interactions (see, for example, E. B. Barbier Economics,...

externality

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... ( externalization of production costs , social cost ) A consequence or impact of a decision about resources that is not directly accounted for in the price paid for the resource, such as pollution , loss of wilderness , or environmental change . See also environmental economics ; internalization ; market failure...

consumption externality

consumption externality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
48 words

...consumption externality An externality that affects the utility level of one or more individuals. An example of a negative consumption externality is noise from a neighbour’s television or cigarette smoke from someone close; an example of a positive consumption externality is the sight of a well-kept...

production externality

production externality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
76 words

...production externality An external effect of production that harms or benefits someone else than the producer. An example of negative production externality is noise or air pollution; an example of positive production externality is pollination of nearby crops and orchards by the bees kept by a beekeeper for their honey. Typically, a negative production externality results in over-provision of the good produced, whereas a positive production externality leads to under-provision, relative to the social optimum...

pecuniary externality

pecuniary externality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
72 words

...pecuniary externality An externality that is felt through prices rather than through quantities. For example, migration of workers into a country will increase labour supply and lower wages. This is a pecuniary externality for the native workers of the country who suffer from reduced real income. In the presence of competitive markets such an externality does not result in inefficiency, because the price is adjusting to ensure a Pareto-efficient ...

network externality

network externality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
49 words

...network externality An externality derived from being connected to other economic agents, for example through a telephone system or the internet. The concept also applies to social networks. The larger the proportion of the population connected to such a network, the greater the benefits to each of...

Externality Valuation

Externality Valuation   Reference library

Areti KONTOGIANNI

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,220 words

... Externality Valuation An externality is a state of affairs in which the action of a person affects (positively or negatively) the production or consumption possibilities of another, without this action being mirrored in a corresponding financial compensation. The most widely publicized externalities of interest with regard to sustainable environments are of a negative nature: the smokestacks of industrial plants emitting smoke that reduces visibility and leads to cardiovascular diseases. These and many other externalities causing pollution, resource...

externality

externality n   Reference library

Oxford Business Spanish Dictionary: English-Spanish

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
4 words
externality

externality n   Reference library

Oxford Business French Dictionary: English-French

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
7 words
externality

externality noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
87 words
externality

externality noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
69 words
externality

externality noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
99 words
externality

externality  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The indirect effect of one agent's consumption activity or production activity on the well-being or economic activities of other agents. Pollution generated from the production of electricity or loud ...
production externality

production externality  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An external effect of production that harms or benefits someone else than the producer. An example of negative production externality is noise or air pollution; an example of positive production ...

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