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## existential generalization

Subject: Philosophy

The process of inferring from a particular proposition (‘Fred is bald’) the corresponding existential quantification (‘someone is bald’).

## existential generalization Quick reference

### The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
20 words

... generalization The process of inferring from a particular proposition (‘Fred is bald’) the corresponding existential quantification (‘someone is...

## existential generalization

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The process of inferring from a particular proposition (‘Fred is bald’) the corresponding existential quantification (‘someone is bald’).

## square of opposition

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
In traditional logic the square of opposition summarizes the logical relationships between the four forms of subject-predicate proposition known as A, E, I, O: All X are Y; no X are Y; some X are Y; ...

## square of opposition Quick reference

### The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
144 words
Illustration(s):
1

...both be true, but can both be false. A proposition is subaltern to another if it is implied by it, but does not imply it. Subcontraries can both be true, but cannot both be false. The relations as indicated depend upon reading existential import into, for example, ‘All X are Y’. In modern quantification theory the generalization carries no implication that there are any things that are X, and indeed, is bound to be true when there are none ( see vacuous...

## quantifier n. Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . 1. In logic , a symbol denoting the degree of generality of an expression, the most important being the existential quantifier ∃ and the universal quantifier ∀. ∃ x means approximately there exists an x such that… ; and ∀ x means approximately for every x ,…. The universal quantifier is also written ( x ), for example, the sentence All students are friendly may be written either ∀ x : Sx → Fx or ( x )( Sx → Fx ), where S stands for is a student , F stands for is friendly , and the arrow stands for if…then or material...

## intentionality Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
684 words

...Intensionality is a feature of certain logical and linguistic contexts which exhibit the following features: (i) they are referentially opaque—substitution of co-referring expressions in a sentence may change the truth-value of the sentence; (ii) they do not license existential generalization—from ‘ Fa ’ we cannot infer ‘There exists an x such that Fx ’. Ascriptions of intentional states certainly can exhibit intensionality in this sense. If I believe that Aristotle wrote the Posterior Analytics , it doesn't follow that I believe that Alexander's...

## Reid, Louis Arnaud (1895–1986) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,723 words

...fixity of hitherto accepted categories, and constantly demanding a continual perceptual openness on the part of its percipients. Reid concludes that ‘The philosopher, properly starting from aesthetic experience, goes back, through criticism, to attempted universalisation, or generalisation … For the critic, the pull is towards the work, and this being so, he may forget his linkage with ideas that lie beyond the work’ (‘On Talking About the Arts’, p. 326). In asserting that experience of art constitutes a kind of knowing, Reid had to confront an epistemological...

## descriptions Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
770 words

...therefore, that definite descriptions should not be treated as proper names, and that, although (2) has the grammatical form of a subject-predicate sentence, it does not have the logical form of a subject-predicate sentence. Rather, it has the logical form of existential generalization. According to Russell, the correct analysis of (2) is, therefore, (2') There is an x such that x is a present king of France, nothing else is a present king of France, and x is bald. Russell's theory thus happily entails that (2) is (meaningful and) false, if it is not...

## Parry, William Tuthill (1908–88) Reference library

### The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
729 words

...shows that “the system of natural deduction proposed by Copi made by varying one restriction on Universal Generalization (UG) of the system of his Symbolic logic, is incorrect …” (1965, p. 119). Parry showed that Copi ’s restrictions on the UG rule were inadequate precisely because Copi had failed to make use of W. V. Quine ’s device of flagging the instantial variable in an inference by Existential Instantiation or Universal Generalization. Dag Prawitz ( 1965 ) showed that Parry’s system is correct, by transforming deductions of it into corresponding...

## Braithwaite, Richard Bevan (1900–90) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,508 words

...but constant conjunctions; yet what distinguishes them from cosmic coincidences? We typically see natural laws as explanatory and, at least at a common sense level, causal; according to Braithwaite, this results solely from the role of the universal generalizations in our thinking, those generalizations identifying laws when pointing beyond a generalizing of observed instances. If the hypothesis that all men are mortal (pretending that to be a scientific hypothesis) is seen as supported solely by men having died, then it identifies no natural law; but if,...

## intentionality Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,864 words

...verbs is failure to support so‐called existential generalization . This feature derives from our ability to think about things that do not exist. Consider the sentence ‘Jim is sitting in his jacuzzi.’ It entails the following sentence: ‘There is an x , such that Jim is sitting in x .’ (The first entails the second in the sense that it is impossible for the first to be true while the second is false.) This sort of entailment is called existential generalization by logicians. For most sentences, existential generalization is a valid inference. But not for all....

## Abstraction Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

...psyche, it gains scope through the presumption of a common source of psychic reality for which the artwork is a conduit. Two theoretical models for this context are Sigmund Freud 's posit of a layered consciousness, to which access is both problematic and rewarding, and the existential doctrines of Jean-Paul Sartre and Søren Kierkegaard , which stress the primacy of individual experience over the institutional rubric. Somewhat paradoxically, the large scale and pictorial richness of the art through which such experience is projected give it an...

## Wright, Chauncey (1830–75) Reference library

### The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,867 words

...method and hence their concepts and laws cannot be interpreted as generalizations drawn from empirical facts, as Hume and Mill had contended. Wright observed that empirical generalizations are limited in scope whereas fundamental laws such as those of gravity and thermodynamics have unlimited scope. Moreover, with regard to the concepts of lower-order laws, such as Kepler’s, while they have a limited range, that range is precisely known, unlike generalizations from experience where the scope is indefinite. The British empiricists also err in...

## Berkeley on perception Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,387 words

...exactly as it appears—for, in fact, it is ‘what appears’, no more and no less. Then his doctrine is also, he claims, ontologically economical, non-redundant: to describe our experience we need nothing more than ‘spirits’ and ‘ideas’; and Berkeley makes no further, gratuitous existential assumptions. Then, since the cause of ideas, in Berkeley's doctrine, is the will of God, he has, he claims, a real cause, a truly explanatory agency—and, last but for Berkeley not least, one that firmly entrenches theism in the nature of things, as the ground of all being. What...

## Keynes, John Neville (1852–1949) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,187 words

...Exercises in Formal Logic , which he intended as a supplement to the existing logic textbooks . Despite this limitation, it proved to be popular, largely because it was clearly written and avoided symbolism. One of its most innovative parts is an extensive discussion of the existential import of propositions, a topic then coming to the fore among logicians. Between the first and the fourth editions of the book the space devoted to this topic expanded from thirteen to thirty-eight pages. Throughout his discussion he defended the view that the subject terms of...

## Smiley, Timothy (1930) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,012 words

...p. 10). It is mathematical, because its limits are set by mathematical content: too much and it becomes something else – a theory of sets or probability or whatever; too little and a logic doesn't get going. Finally, it is applied because it is only sometimes reliable. Existential import is an example of this ingrained tendency towards impurity, starting with Aristotle's inference from ‘every man’ to ‘some man’, through to the classical predicate calculus and its assumption that the domain is necessarily non-empty. As befits applied mathematics, logical...

## Lukács, György (1885) Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,565 words

...communal understanding of the world and to give a unified meaning to the life of the individual. Questions concerning the arts are raised by Lukács within this context, to be approached in two distinct ways: as problems related to the history of modern art and as metaphysical-existential questions. The historical works of this period— History of Development of the Modern Drama ( 1911 ) and The Theory of Novel ( 1916 )—share a fundamental methodological premise: the historicity of works of art is ultimately determined not at the level of their content, but by...

## Lukács, György (1885–1971) Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,574 words

...communal understanding of the world and to give a unified meaning to the life of the individual. Questions concerning the arts are raised by Lukács within this context, to be approached in two distinct ways: as problems related to the history of modern art and as metaphysical-existential questions. The historical works of this period— History of Development of the Modern Drama ( 1911 ) and The Theory of Novel ( 1916 )—share a fundamental methodological premise: the historicity of works of art is ultimately determined not at the level of their content but by...

## Foreign Policy Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,192 words

...the process of foreign policy making on the other. Most often, however, it focuses on the interactions between the two, starting from the premise that what is done will be partially determined by how it is done, and allowing for the possibility of human beings asserting their existential rights to choice, even in the most constricted circumstances. Moreover the environments in which action takes place are to be regarded as crucial but not given; the interplay of domestic and international factors is an endlessly varied and elastic process. For the most part the...

## indexicality Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,376 words

...to each other. This is the sense in which indexicality is Secondness and iconicity is Firstness. Such a view of indexicality seems to conform to the most general formulations given by Peirce, according to which indexicality depends on there being a “real connection,” an “existential relation,” a “dynamical (including spatial) connection,” and even, in one of its many conceivable senses, a “physical connection” between the items involved (1.196; 1.558; 2.305; 3.361; 8.335). It thus seems natural to go on to argue that indexicality is involved with...

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