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Exile

Subject: Religion

The phrase is used absolutely of the captivity of the Jews in Babylon from c.586 to c.539 bc.

exile

exile   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
385 words

...was formally exiled or simply fled voluntarily to escape worse. In addition, we often hear of political exiles, as individuals or groups. Again, it is sometimes unclear whether such exiles were driven out by actual decree or because life was for whatever reason intolerable. Decrees of exile were sometimes reversed. As a result of Alexander (2) the Great's ‘Exiles' Decree’, exiles returned to their origins. As beneficiaries of this general policy, Samians returned to Samos in 322 , 44 years after their expulsion by Athens, which therefore found itself...

Exile

Exile   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
162 words

... The banishment of the Jewish people from their homeland and the state of mind produced by this; Heb. Galut . Especially after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 ce , Jews began to see the Galut as a catastrophic punishment for their sins. In the additional prayer recited on festivals the phrase occurs: ‘because of our sins we have been exiled from our land and removed far from our country’. Tensions inevitably developed between the idea that Jews in the Diaspora are in exile and the desire for Jews to accommodate themselves to the life of the...

exile

exile   Reference library

Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, Simon Hornblower, Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, and Barry Nicholas

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
718 words

... Greek Exile (φυγή, literally ‘flight’) is permanent ( aeiphygia ) or long-term removal from one's native place, usually as a punishment imposed by government or other superior power. In Greece it was from earliest times a standard consequence of homicide, and was as much a religious way of getting rid of a source of pollution as a punishment. Thus Zeus in Homer 's Iliad is said to make men exiles, driving them like a gadfly over the face of the earth (24. 532 f.). In Classical Greece exile was a punishment for various offences, such as professional...

Exile

Exile   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
309 words

...in Soviet Russia. Mussolini also used internal exile ( confino ) as a way of dealing with dissident intellectuals within the country, the most famous victims being Pavese , who spent a year in Calabria as a result of complicity with the Giustizia e libertà group in Turin , and Carlo Levi . Though Ungaretti made much of exile as the spiritual condition of modern man in his work, no large body of exile literature came into being during the Fascist years, nor was there a literature of ‘inner exile’ comparable with that created by German writers under...

Exile

Exile   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... . The existence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah was in each case brought to an end by the exile of the population ( 2 Kgs. 17.1–6 , 25.1–21 ). Although the inhabitants of the northern kingdom were believed to have remained in exile in Assyria ( 2 Kgs. 17.23 ), the exile of Judah to Babylon is conventionally understood to have been brought to an end by the decree of Cyrus permitting the rebuilding of the Temple ( Ezr. 6.3–5 ) and—according to the versions of the decree recorded in Ezra 1.2–4 and 2 Chronicles 36.23 —the return of the exiles...

Exile

Exile   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
423 words

... . In biblical studies, more than in the Bible itself, “the exile” looms large as a chronological hinge around 600 BCE . The decisive “preexilic” events of covenant , Exodus , and kingship occupy far more space than the scanty postexilic events, but of the latter, Ezra , Haggai‐Malachi, and the deuterocanonical books ( see Apocrypha ) are taken as the key to the final editing of the prophets and the Pentateuch . Exile as a place was Babylonia ; the earlier exile ( 2 Kings 17.6 ) was rather an exchange of populations between the northern kingdom of...

Exile

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
122 words

... The captivity of the Jews in Babylon (the “Babylonian Captivity”). In 597 bc the Babylonians captured Jerusalem and took King Jehoiachin and many leaders of the Judaean community, including the prophet Ezekiel, into exile in Babylon. Following further revolt, they again attacked Jerusalem and, after a three-year siege captured and destroyed it in 586 bc . Many of those taken to Babylon were settled in communities, with the result that distinctive Jewish teaching, religion, and life could continue. In 539 bc Babylon fell to Persia and one year...

exile

exile   Reference library

Charles Pazdernik

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in 383/4 ( Ammianus , XIV, 6, 19). High-status offenders were exiled in circumstances in which their inferiors were more usually executed or condemned to the mines . Constantine I ’s banishment of Arius and two bishops deposed by the Council of Nicaea set a precedent for imperial involvement in ecclesiastical discipline, while Magnus Maximus ’ execution of Priscillian of Avila attracted the stigma of persecution and was not repeated. Athanasius of Alexandria was exiled five times, yet died in his see, while John Chrysostom ’s...

Exile

Exile   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
207 words

... Exile Once we had a country and we thought it fair, Look in the atlas and you'll find it there: We cannot go there now, my dear, we cannot go there now. W. H. Auden 1907 – 73 English poet ‘Refugee Blues’ (1940) Tu proverai sì come sa di sale Lo pane altrui, e com'è duro calle Lo scendere e'l salir per l'altrui scale. You shall find out how salt is the taste of another man's bread, and how hard is the way up and down another man's stairs. Dante Alighieri 1265 – 1321 Italian poet Divina Commedia ‘Paradiso’ canto 17, l. 58 how salt is the...

Exile

Exile (1971– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
245 words

...work, Exile has consistently resisted the temptation to pad its pages with what Callaghan has termed ‘factual filler’, such as critical reviews, essays, and articles, and has focused on introducing leading-edge work by an array of international as well as Canadian writers. Among those Canadians who have found support and a forum in the pages of Exile have been Seán Virgo , David Donnell , Diane Keating , Jane Urquhart , and David Wevill . Callaghan has often declared his loyalty to those whose work he believes in with the phrase ‘once an Exile, always...

EXILE

EXILE   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,120 words

... ( see Assyrian Exile ). From at least the time of the Babylonian exile there was continuity and development of Jewish life in the Diaspora (Greek for “dispersion”; i.e., Jewish residence outside Erets Yisra’el). The two major exiles have decisively influenced Jewish religious and social development, and the seeds of many of the features characteristic of the second exile can already be detected in the brief first exile in Babylonia. Ezekiel’s prophecies were uttered in Babylonia (cf. Ez. 1.1–2) and exhibit important effects of that exile: insistence on the...

exile

exile   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
285 words

...they avoided the great religious festivals and games, so as not to be a pollution. If a man suffering penal exile was found in Attica, he ran the risk of imprisonment and perhaps execution. Exile was for a fixed period or for life unless the sufferer obtained pardon. In Rome, as in Athens, a defendant on trial for a capital crime might choose to go into exile ( exsilium ) before judgement was pronounced. However, in the last century of the republic exile became a substitute for the death penalty when magistrates were obliged to allow a condemned person time to...

Exile

Exile   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
226 words

... exoria as a penalty for economic crimes; normally, however, exile was reserved for political criminals and suspects, esp. church leaders ( John Chrysostom , Pope Martin I , Theodore of Stoudios , Photios , etc.). The place of banishment could be to the border of the empire, an island, or some less remote location; some suspects or criminals were relegated to monasteries or placed under house arrest on their own estates. Experiences of exile varied widely; a special genre of letters from exile presents a broad range of feelings, from nostalgic longing for...

Exile, Babylonian

Exile, Babylonian   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
39 words

..., Babylonian . Exile of the Jews in Babylon in the 6th cent. bce . From this experience and history derives the phrase, ‘a Babylonian exile’, to describe other periods of exile from a home circumstance. See also DIASPORA and GALUT...

Exile's Return

Exile's Return   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
13 words

...'s Return , a partly autobiographical narrative of the “lost generation” by Malcolm Cowley...

Exile, the

Exile, the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16 words

...Exile, the . A term commonly used, esp. by OT scholars, for the Babylonian Captivity (q.v.)....

Exile, the

Exile, the   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20 words

..., the . The phrase is used absolutely of the captivity of the Jews in Babylon from c. 586 to c. 539 bc...

Exile, Greek

Exile, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
964 words

...III (Alexander the Great) issued a decree ordering all exiles to return home (Diodorus Siculus 18.8.4). It is clear from surviving decrees regulating the restoration of property to exiles (see Rhodes and Osborne) that at least some exiles took this opportunity to return to their native cities. Exile in the Literary Imagination. The phenomenon of exile abounds in the mythical and literary imagination of the Greeks. In addition to the great heroes of Homeric epic (e.g., Odysseus), the plight of exiles is prominent in lyric and elegaic poetry (e.g., Alcaeus,...

tax exile

tax exile   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...exile A person with a high income or considerable wealth who chooses to live in a tax haven to avoid high taxation in his or her own...

tax exile

tax exile   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...exile A person with a high income or considerable wealth who chooses to live in a tax haven to avoid high taxation in his or her own country....

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