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establishment fee

A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.

rejuvenation

rejuvenation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,219 words

...of post-menopausal women, and has been a potent weapon in the battle of the sexes. Men and women were brought together in James Graham's Temple of Health and Hymen of 1780 , where electric currents passed through his celestial bed, promising sexual rejuvenation for a nightly fee of fifty pounds. The high priest of health and prophet of prolongation also recommended earth bathing, which stipulated fasting and being buried up to one's neck in mud. Those unwilling to immerse themselves in the earth could strap to their chest a piece of Hampstead Hill turf in...

Dentistry

Dentistry   Reference library

Daniel M. Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to preventive and restorative dental care became an activity of government as a result of the hiring of dentists by state health departments early in the twentieth century and the establishment in 1919 of a dental division of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). The scope and influence of public-health dentistry expanded considerably after the establishment and validation by the PHS in the mid-1940s of a pilot program in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to fluoridate the public water supply to reduce the incidence of dental caries. The use of fluoride in...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise , edited by R. Keohane and M. Levy . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 55–87. Analyzes the interests and interactions of the GEF's key stakeholders during the GEF's establishment, pilot phase, and restructuring negotiations. Global Environment Facility. Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility . Washington, D.C.: Global Environment Facility, 1994. As the GEF's “constitution”, the Instrument defines the roles and responsibilities of the GEF Assembly, Council,...

United States Federal Policy

United States Federal Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...1) cap-and-trade, in which policy makers set a limit on the overall quantity of emissions but let sources buy and sell permits so that they achieve the cap at least cost, and 2) emission fees (or taxes), in which policy makers set the price sources must pay when they emit. Under cap-and-trade the market determines the price emitters must pay. Under an emission fee the market determines the quantity of pollution that results. Critically, both approaches help correct a market failure (i.e., an economically suboptimal outcome) that arises because emitters...

education: theory and practice

education: theory and practice   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,123 words

...provide that education. If it were illegal to allow a child to go uneducated, demand would produce schools which could be inspected for efficiency by government servants, and the pupils of which could be publicly examined. Government could also subsidize those too poor to pay the fees. In this way he thought universal literacy at least would be ensured, while freedom to conduct educational experiments would also be preserved. Mill's arguments were not accepted. But the goal of universal education gained ground, along with the conviction that the state must...

Journals In Science, Medicine, and Engineering

Journals In Science, Medicine, and Engineering   Reference library

Daniel Goldstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...practice of escalating subscription prices that had been pioneered by commercial science journal publishers in Germany in the 1930s. For a number of reasons, libraries were more resistant than individuals to canceling subscriptions in response to higher prices. Combined with page fees, high institutional subscriptions meant that for the first time in American history, the publication of scientific periodicals could be profitable on a large scale. (This did not mean that individual titles were guaranteed to succeed.) Whether they were American or European, the...

Waste Management

Waste Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...generally pay an average amount for the collection and disposal of their waste, which is unrelated to the quantity of waste that they dispose of. The fee is often included in a general local tax and not separately identified. Variable charging relates the amount paid to the amount of waste produced, excluding materials separated for recycling. This is also known as “pay by the bag,” “volume-based fees,” or “unit pricing.” A variety of methods are used, the most common being the purchase of distinctive refuse bags by the householder, the cost of which...

Geology

Geology   Reference library

Paul Lucier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...geology (or any science) was difficult and forced nineteenth-century geologists to cobble together several survey and teaching positions, and often they accepted commissions from companies and capitalists to do private surveys for a fee. These consulting engagements were among the first forms of professional science involving fees for expertise ( Lucier, 2008 ). The summation of antebellum survey geology found its clearest expression in the Manual of Geology ( 1862 ) by James Dwight Dana ( 1813–1895 ), professor of geology at Yale. Dana argued that America,...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...controls and then supported legislation providing federal subsidies for health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to compete with traditional fee-for-service medicine. President Ronald Reagan attempted to limit the federal share of Medicaid expenses by administrative changes in cost-sharing formulas and eligibility rules. Following the advice of Harvard economists, President George Bush’s administration redesigned Medicare fee schedules to favor primary-care physicians over more costly specialists. But the federal government refrained from imposing direct limits...

Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation

Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation   Reference library

Jeffrey M. Jentzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Childs’ attempts at abolishing lay coroners in the United States, although initially successful, stalled mainly because of the political strength of constitutionally elected coroners, as well as the desire of physicians privately performing autopsies for the coroner to maintain fee-for-service reimbursement to supplement their income. To defend their claim of legitimacy, coroners argued that their position was supported by an American democracy where individual citizens spoke through their elected officials. They asserted that because politically appointed...

Climate Policies

Climate Policies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,898 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and WCI's use of auctions as an allowance distribution mechanism. The auction policies are slightly more ambitious than WCI calling for approximately a third of allowances to be auctioned initially ( World Resources Institute, 2009b ) and for the rest to be sold at a “modest fee.” The Final Recommendations initially call for the auction of: 100% of transportation and merchant generator allowances, 5% of industrial allowances, and 5% of electric generator allowances. Through parallel processes, the Midwest has also developed a robust group of complementary...

Higher Education and Science

Higher Education and Science   Reference library

Roger L. Geiger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...fuses, and myriad other technologies. However, a strong sentiment at the end of the war suggested that the achievements of American science rested on the strength of the prewar scientific establishment and that federal patronage would be necessary to sustain future advances. Bush cogently argued this case in Science—The Endless Frontier ( 1945 ), calling for the establishment of a federally supported National Research Foundation. Bush’s insistence on independence from political influence doomed Congressional passage of the foundation in 1946 . The National...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...grew out of earlier medical services provided by companies for accident victims (passengers and workers), using contracted physicians and surgeons. They flourished in hub cities ( smaller clinics proliferated along rail lines), and workers often participated in prepayment fee plans, ( Aldrich, 2001 , p. 255). Western miners’ unions organized hospitals in response to the very meager and poor care provided by mining companies to workers. Miners were forced to pay for the limited care the companies provided; mandatory deductions were taken from pay. In...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...This suggestion ran directly counter to efforts being pursued by antitrust lawyers in the U.S. Department of Justice to compel large corporate laboratories, many of which had received significant contracts from government during the war, to license all patents for a reasonable fee. Meanwhile, business leaders such as Jewett of Bell Labs criticized Bush for putting science on the public dole, a complaint echoed apparently without irony by the Caltech president Robert Millikan, whose institution had collected nearly $100 million from the OSRD. Evidently,...

Traditional Knowledge (India)

Traditional Knowledge (India)   Reference library

Vaneesha JAIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,391 words

...Gardens Research Institute then used the plant to develop a scientifically validated and standardized herbal drug named Jeevani. The research institute transferred the production technology to the pharmaceutical firm Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, and it agreed to share the license fee and royalty equally with the tribal community. At the same time, the wide implementation of benefit-sharing arrangements remains problematic. Systems for benefit sharing are incomplete without the recognition of rights to self-determination, to territories and resources, and to prior...

Waste Management

Waste Management (Ecosystems Management and Sustainability)   Reference library

Michael K. HEIMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,754 words

...more) per ton generated for treatment or disposal of hazardous waste than for solid waste—currently thirty to ninety dollars per ton in the United States ( van Haaren, Themelis, and Goldstein 2010 ). (Exact fees vary by region. Most data are proprietary and available via subscription from sources such as the Waste Business Journal .) Hazardous waste fees vary greatly depending on the actual waste composition, size of the generator, and the method of disposal. The high cost of disposing of the hazardous waste is the main incentive for hazardous waste...

Shipping and Freight Indicators

Shipping and Freight Indicators   Reference library

Claude COMTOIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,818 words

...and regions that have environmental problems are not competitive at the global scale. The operations of ships and ports will become increasingly affected by countries implementing complex systems of differential charging for environmental purposes, such as congestion fees as well as fines and fees for polluting emissions, waste management, and energy efficiency—all of which will be built into shipping costs. Nonetheless, shipping remains the most ecological mode of transport, and to exploit its sustainability assets as competitive advantages, it must...

Fast Food Industry

Fast Food Industry   Reference library

Jay FRIEDLANDER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,145 words

... There are financial, operations, and marketing benefits to adopting these new practices. Financially, companies save money or increase sales through their use. For example, reducing energy needs or eliminating packaging saves costs; composting food waste reduces trash-hauling fees. On the sales side, start-up companies and industry giants such as McDonald’s opened new markets or reinvigorated same-store sales by bringing new or lapsed customers into the store. Today, based on sales of natural and organic products in the grocery segment, it is estimated that...

Environmental Law—East Asia

Environmental Law—East Asia   Reference library

Jeffrey BROADBENT, Koichi HASEGAWA, Dowan KU, Taehyun PARK, Yu-Ju CHIEN, and Jun JIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
5,233 words

...has a seriously negative impact on the environment or there is concern of endangering the environment, the protection of the environment shall prevail.” It adopted concepts such as civil participation, collecting fees from beneficiaries or users, setting appropriate lawyer fees paid by the defendant agency, and returning detection and appraisal fees and other litigation costs to plaintiffs. In May 2010 , the Environmental Education Act was passed, making Taiwan one of few countries that legally require public officials and students to complete environmental...

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