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Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise , edited by R. Keohane and M. Levy . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 55–87. Analyzes the interests and interactions of the GEF's key stakeholders during the GEF's establishment, pilot phase, and restructuring negotiations. Global Environment Facility. Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility . Washington, D.C.: Global Environment Facility, 1994. As the GEF's “constitution”, the Instrument defines the roles and responsibilities of the GEF Assembly, Council,...

Environmental Economics

Environmental Economics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the working of the economy. He distinguished between the private costs of production and consumption (encapsulated in fuel, raw materials, labor costs, etc.) and the full social costs (i.e., on society as a whole) of such activities. Thus pollution gives rise to external costs, which drive a wedge between private and social costs. The socially optimal level of external costs is unlikely to be zero (zero pollution) because of the natural capacity of the environment to absorb some waste and the costs of controlling pollution. Zero pollution is desirable, however,...

Joint Implementation

Joint Implementation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...parties (countries that have ratified the FCCC) to fulfill a part of their greenhouse gas emission-reduction commitments through abatement action in the territory of another party (the JI host country). The rationale for such cooperation is that for parties with high marginal costs of abatement—for example, because of their already relatively high level of energy efficiency—it is cost-effective to invest in cheaper emission-reduction measures abroad than in expensive measures domestically. If the host countries also benefit from the same cooperation (for...

Joint Implementation

Joint Implementation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Parties (countries that have ratified the FCCC) to fulfill a part of their greenhouse-gas emission-reduction commitments through abatement action in the territory of another party (the JI host country). The rationale for such cooperation is that for Parties with high marginal costs of abatement—for example, because of their already relatively high level of energy efficiency—it is cost effective to invest in cheaper emission-reduction measures abroad than in expensive measures domestically. If the host countries also benefit from the same cooperation (for...

Climate Models and Uncertainty

Climate Models and Uncertainty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,573 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with some simplification of the atmospheric and oceanic components ( Randall et al., 2007 ). The reduction in complexity reduces the computational costs of running EMICs, allowing them to provide results not normally available from AOGCMs. EMICs allow, for example, long-term climate simulation experiments—over several thousand years—which are not commonly run on AOGCMs because of prohibitive computational costs. Other EMICs attempt to simulate the natural integration of the components of the earth-atmosphere system by incorporating as many of these components...

Hazardous Waste

Hazardous Waste   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...a result of the generation and disposal of hazardous wastes has, not surprisingly, substantially increased the cost of waste disposal. Although prices vary markedly between countries, the processing of hazardous waste within the OECD now costs an average of fifty to sixty U.S. dollars per metric ton (OECD, 1991 ). Rising costs, coupled with pressure from the public and environmental lobby groups, have led to significant changes in the perception and general attitude toward the management of wastes. Instead of a preoccupation with the “safe management” of wastes...

Waste Management

Waste Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...[See Regulation .] This has resulted in some waste disposal options being priced at levels that do not take environmental costs and benefits into consideration. These costs and benefits are borne by society in general, and are not accounted for in the decisions made about waste. For example, the cost of disposal to landfill does not include the external costs associated with the global warming potential of methane emissions. Social costs and benefits are known as “externalities,” and can include air emissions, water pollution and health impacts, and benefits...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...IT may transform economies globally. In doing so, they refer to decreased transaction costs thought to be brought about by IT. They also hearken to the assumption of perfect information that underlies claims of the economic efficiency of markets and the fact that decreases in the cost of information and improvements in its availability should lead to corresponding increases in economic efficiency. These supposed gains in efficiency are not certain and do not come without costs. Even though computer power and memory capacity have improved even more rapidly than...

Framework Convention On Climate Change

Framework Convention On Climate Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...emissions, which were advocated by, among others, the European Union and the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), but opposed by the United States; and (2) financial assistance. On the latter issue, developing countries sought new and additional funds for their incre-mental costs of implementation, as well as the creation of a new financial mechanism, while developed countries wished to give more limited assistance, administered by the recently established Global Environment Facility (GEF). The final text of the FCCC reflects compromises on both issues....

Framework Convention on Climate Change

Framework Convention on Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...greenhouse gas emissions (advocated by, among others, the European Union and the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), but opposed by the United States), and financial assistance. On the latter issue, developing countries sought new and additional funds for their incremental costs of implementation, as well as the creation of a new financial mechanism, while developed countries wished to give more limited assistance, administered by the recently established Global Environment Facility ( GEF ). The final text of the FCCC reflects compromise on both...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...silting of rivers, canals, and reservoirs, damage to roads and property as a result of burial by sediments, and pollution of water bodies through increased concentrations of sediment particles and transfer of chemicals, particularly phosphorus, adsorbed to the clays. The off-site costs of erosion are considerable, amounting to A2–4 per hectare in northwestern New South Wales. Over time, if no remedial measures are taken, accelerated soil erosion can lead to a self-perpetuating system in which the loss of soil fertility results in poorer vegetation cover, hence...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...canals, and reservoirs, damage to roads and property from burial by sediments during muddy floods, and pollution of water bodies through increased concentrations of sediment particles and transfer of chemicals, particularly phosphorus, adsorbed on the clay particles. The overall costs of erosion, both on- and off-site, are considerable, amounting to U.S.$30–44 billion annually in the U.S. and £90 million annually in the U.K. Over time, if no remedial measures are taken, accelerated soil erosion can lead to a self-perpetuating system in which the loss of soil...

Ethanol

Ethanol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,032 words
Illustration(s):
2

...emerge from the heavily energy-dependent developed countries. This demand will likely be met by exports from the less developed tropical and subtropical countries, which tend to have more land available, climates capable of supporting more productive feedstocks, and lower labor costs, and therefore a comparative advantage in supply. Despite a $0.54/gallon import tariff, ethanol imports into the United States have increased dramatically since 2002 (Table 1), with more than 50% of supply coming from Brazil. Current and Future Ethanol Production Technologies...

Ecological value of Parks and Preserves

Ecological value of Parks and Preserves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of the OECD International Conference on Incentive Measures for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity, Cairns, Australia, March 25 –28, 1996. Paris: OECD, 1997. Papers outlining methodologies for setting conservation priorities, estimating biodiversity costs and benefits, and providing information about experiences and concerns regarding the appropriate combination of incentives and strategies for supporting biodiversity incentives in non-OECD nations. Solbrig, O. T. , H. M. van Emdem , and P. G. W. J. van Oordt , eds. Biodiversity...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,364 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the media, in schools, and in the halls of government. Not unlike their predecessors, second-wave environmentalists were concerned with managing natural resources efficiently to satisfy human needs, but they were also troubled by the growth of these needs and the ecological costs of satisfying them on a global scale. With mounting unease, the general public learned that humankind was becoming the victim of its own environmental abuses. Consumerism and the mass-production of goods had yielded a tremendous increase in litter. Waste-disposal and...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and environmental degradation. Instead, they place the burden of proof on those favoring resource exploitation to show that such actions in fact yield sustained economic benefits that do not involve the loss of unique—and potentially irreplaceable—natural systems. Where the costs and benefits necessary to make this case are poorly measured or undefined, as is arguably the case for biodiversity, climate stability, and other forms of “critical natural capital,” then sustaining the stability and functioning of environmental systems is taken as the operational...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the media, in schools, and in the halls of government. Not unlike their predecessors, second-wave environmentalists were concerned with managing natural resources efficiently to satisfy human needs. But they were also troubled by the growth of these needs and the ecological costs of satisfying them on a global scale. With mounting unease, the general public learned that humankind was becoming the victim of its own environmental abuses. Consumerism and the mass production of goods had yielded a tremendous increase in litter. Waste disposal and energy...

Fishing

Fishing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,882 words
Illustration(s):
7

...how, with increasing catches throughout the world, the proportion of overexploited resources rose, despite the de facto Law of the Sea. By the 1990s it was clear that current management practices were not effective. Further, Garcia and Newton ( 1995 ) showed that by 1989 total costs exceeded revenue by 43 percent. This implies that the fisheries are often subsidized, perhaps to sustain employment, but it is still poor management. Fishing. Figure 1. As world catches increased in the 1980s, the proportion of overexploited stocks rose sharply. (After Garcia and...

Amazonia, Deforestation Of

Amazonia, Deforestation Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,326 words
Illustration(s):
2

...nor is a project that exports commodities from the region while generating minimal employment or other local returns (aluminum processing and export is a good example because it provides almost no employment in Brazil, despite massive monetary, environmental, and social costs of hydroelectric dams built to supply the industry; Fearnside, 1999, 2000). The production of traditional commodities often fails to benefit the local population. Conversion of forest to cattle pasture, the most widespread land use change in Brazilian Amazonia, brings benefits...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a fraction of the capacity that will be lost by 2030 . Since the Chernobyl disaster of 1986 , only two big industrial countries, France and Japan, have retained a policy of expanding nuclear capacity. Many others have imposed moratoria or outright bans on new nuclear plants. Costs, too, have worked against the nuclear option. The long lead times needed to build nuclear stations may strengthen the case for preserving viable nuclear programs in anticipation of possible fuel shortages sometime into the next century, but for this to happen the problem of safe...

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