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cruelty

cruelty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,233 words

...stopped short of frank killing. Violently inflicted cruelty is the coinage of smash-hit novels, films, and TV series. The torture of animals for entertainment, a popular public spectacle until the establishment of humane societies in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century, continues clandestinely. The willingness of military establishments to develop technologies of cruelty as instruments of war flourishes globally, while the coercive forces of the state (and its opponents) use confessional and disciplinary cruelty for political ends. 4....

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the APS (see the section “ Sport Psychology Professional Bodies”). In many ways, this group of events created a significant platform for the ongoing development of Australian sport psychology. Establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport Australian sport psychology was effectively launched as a bona fide profession in conjunction with the establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in 1981 ( Daly, 1991 ). The commencement of the “legitimacy” of the profession in the early 1980s was correlated with the co-location of the AIS Sport...

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Claudio Robazza and Montse C. Ruiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...highlighting the crucial role of the information-bearing structures involved in movement production. They added a fourth dimension, termed skill establishment , to the three-dimensional model of the anxiety–performance relationship. The three-dimensional model, advanced by Cheng, Hardy, and Markland ( 2009 ) , includes the cognitive anxiety, physiological anxiety, and perceived control dimensions. Skill establishment comprises the level and consistency of movement automaticity combined with the individual’s confidence in this specific process against...

Supervision in Performance Settings (Dance, Music, Acting)

Supervision in Performance Settings (Dance, Music, Acting)   Reference library

Gene M. Moyle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...(i.e., short-term project contracts) and freelancers (i.e., short one-night “gigs” or performances). Furthermore, due to the limited funding opportunities within the arts sector in most countries, dance companies typically prioritize the payment of employee salaries, operating costs, and “putting on performances” versus funding artists’ access to healthcare services. Unless a dancer is employed by a large professional company that provides professional healthcare as part of employment benefits (usually ballet companies), funding support to benefit from such...

Substance Use in Later Life

Substance Use in Later Life   Reference library

Stephen J. Bright

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,928 words

...P. , Blazer, D. G. , & Moore, A. A. (2014). Substance abuse among older adults . Clinics in Geriatric Medicine , 30 , 629–654. Lehnert, T. , Heider, D. , Leicht, H. , Heinrich, S. , Corrieri, S. , Luppa, M. , … König, H. H. (2011). Health care utilization and costs of elderly persons with multiple chronic conditions . Medical Care Research and Review , 68 , 387–420. Liberto, J. G. , & Oslin, D. W. (1995). Early versus late onset of alcoholism in the elderly. International Journal of the Addictions , 30 , 1799–1818. Marel, C. , Mills...

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