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Luddite riots

Luddite riots   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
997 words

...sanction) placing severe restrictions on trade with France by any neutral country. This particularly affected the United States which placed its own restrictions on both France and Britain to force them to lift their sanctions. Hard‐hit manufacturers sought to reduce costs by dismissal of workers, lower wages, and especially the introduction of machinery and new techniques that made skilled workers redundant. This also affected cottage‐based industries that were forced out of business because the efficient new machinery in the mills produced more...

publishing, printing, bookselling: modes of production

publishing, printing, bookselling: modes of production   Reference library

Robert Patten

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,699 words

...sales, and costs of manufacturing a product, he usually learned about gross sales and net income from retail commissions, about the actual costs of production (not hidden ones such as overheads, warehousing, and office-staff wages), and about the commissions to publishers and net profits to partners in the copyright lease. Thus the second half-yearly account from Bradbury and Evans on Bleak House , which covered new parts from July to December 1852 (but indicated the expense of printing a month ahead of publication, so the July number's costs appeared in...

Transport: roads, coaches, railways, omnibuses, cabs

Transport: roads, coaches, railways, omnibuses, cabs   Reference library

John Drew

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,018 words

...Liverpool and Manchester line, on which George Stephenson 's ‘Rocket’ made its fateful inaugural journey in 1830 , claimed that its ‘immediate and prominent advantages’ lay in reducing transport time from an average 36 hours by canal to a mere ‘4 or 5’ by rail, and transport costs by ‘at least one-third’ ( Prospectus for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway , 1826 ). As well as being attractive to the cotton and coal producers in many areas of Britain, the actual construction of railways, with their associated demand for raw materials and human labour, was...

law and legal institutions

law and legal institutions   Reference library

David Sugarman

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,666 words

...also suffered from the shortcomings of Chancery in 1844 when he successfully obtained an injunction to prevent breach of copyright with respect to pirated versions of A Christmas Carol . The defendants declared themselves bankrupt and Dickens had to pay his own considerable costs. He was friendly with several leading legal figures, including Chief Justice Cockburn , Baron Bramwell , Mr Justice Willes , Lord Denman , Lord Chief Baron Pollock , and Lord Campbell , although not all were charmed by his representations of legal matters. His long and close...

finances

finances   Reference library

J. H. Stape

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,046 words

... home , preferring, it seems, to live in rented houses. Treatment and hospitalization for Jessie Conrad during these years were costly, but Conrad did not stint on it, placing his wife under the care of a titled surgeon, Sir Robert Jones . There were private nurses as well as costs related to her recuperation in private nursing homes in London, Liverpool, and Canterbury. His younger son, John, was provided with a public school education, private tutoring, and a period in France for him to learn the language. Conrad generously contributed to the education...

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