You are looking at 1-5 of 5 entries  for:

  • All: establishment clause x
clear all

View:

Overview

establishment clause

The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to ...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

Hatoon Al-Fassi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,743 words

...of the religious establishment was strengthened in the public arena. Constraints were subsequently imposed on women, pulling them away from the public sphere. The resulting limitations on education, work, and movement were reflected in women's economic participation confining them to jobs that conform to rules of segregation. This has resulted in turning Saudi women into the least economically productive persons in the world, with only 10.5 percent economic participation, not by their own choice, but by state and religious establishment unconscious design....

Tunisia

Tunisia   Reference library

Lamia Ben Youssef

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,266 words

...and Documentation ( 1991 ) and the Ministry of the Affairs of Women, Children and Childhood ( 1992 ). Trying to surpass Bourguiba, he enacted laws recognizing the rights of single mothers and children born out of wedlock ( 1998 ), replaced the word “obedience” to a husband in clause 23 of the PSC with the word “kindness” ( 1993 ), and granted Tunisian women the right to pass on their citizenship to their children born of a foreign husband ( 1993 ). This new law remains patriarchal because only the Tunisian woman needs the consent of her foreign husband to...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

...reformist segment of the clerical establishment. As part of this reformist trend, many women were elected to parliament, and, upon his election, Khātamī expressed his gratitude to women as a constituency by appointing a woman vice president. The new opening encouraged the emergence of a new alliance between feminist and Islamist women that pushed for gender agendas that supported more rights for women within and outside the family. Equally important, in women's publications and within some segments of the clerical establishment, debates began about how the...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...by the rabbis. The documents left by Babatha, a wealthy woman who lived in the first part of the second century c.e. , show both similarities and differences between common practice and rabbinic law. Her marriage document contains a number of the clauses stipulated by the rabbis as well as a number of other clauses. Her documents also show that women were able to buy and sell goods and petition the court to approve their requests. Procreation. Other than the blessing “be fruitful and multiply” ( Gen 1:28 ), the Torah does not view procreation as a...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...the format and content of Neo-Assyrian adoption records differ according to the gender of the adoptee, they all confirm the economic function of the institution in the preservation of the patrilineal organization and focus of ancient Near Eastern society ( Radner, 1997 ). Clauses that confirm adoptive boys as their fathers’ heirs do not appear in texts recording girls’ adoptions, which appear to have taken place for other economic, as well as humanitarian, reasons: a transfer of assets accompanied girls’ adoptions, and the girl might provide domestic...

View: