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establishment clause

The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to ...

perspectives on technology and society

perspectives on technology and society   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...as powerful campaigners, we could have ended up with quite a different bicycle. In arguments of both the social and the political constructions of technology, authors invoke the “it could be otherwise” clause as a way of exposing different factors involved in the construction. Notably, however, they both deploy specifically limited interpretations of this clause. For example, attention is drawn to political construction as a way of showing how the “actual” effects of a technology disadvantage some users (and empower some others). The nature and status of these...

Creationism

Creationism   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a practicing Lutheran, Jones ruled that ID was “not science” because it invoked “supernatural causation” and failed “to meet the essential ground rules that limit science to testable, natural explanations.” Thus, even this nonbiblical version of creationism violated the establishment clause of the Constitution. Judge Jones rejected as “utterly false” the assumption “that evolutionary theory is antithetical to a belief in the existence of a supreme being and to religion in general.” His conclusion: “It is unconstitutional to teach ID as an alternative to...

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the states or to the national government; whether the Colorado River was navigable; and whether public or private interests should develop water power. In the end, Congress concluded that the Colorado River was at least technically navigable (and therefore subject to the Commerce Clause of the Constitution); that it was also an international stream because it flowed into Mexico; and that—despite intensive lobbying by private power companies—the welfare of the people could best be served in this case through the public sector. This last point was the most...

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