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establishment clause

The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to ...

establishment clause

establishment clause   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
147 words

... clause The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to overturn, or declare unconstitutional, state laws involving the government in religious activities, such as prayers or religious programs in public schools. For example, the Court used the establishment clause to strike down state government laws in Engel v. Vitale ( 1962 ) and Wallace v. Jaffree ( 1985 ). There is general agreement that the...

Establishment Clause

Establishment Clause noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
44 words
establishment clause

establishment clause  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to overturn ...
38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...maps, using copper *plates , and probably techniques, imported from Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a programme of Westernizing innovations in the Ottoman capital which also led, less than ten years later, to the establishment of Müteferrika’s famous book-printing establishment, complete with Arabic types cut and cast locally and modelled on the neat Ottoman naskhī bookhand of the period. The first book, an Arabic–Turkish *Dictionary , was printed in 1729 in 500 copies and was followed by sixteen others in Ottoman...

free exercise clause

free exercise clause  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The 1st Amendment to the Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” Through its free exercise clause, the 1st ...
Van Orden v. Perry

Van Orden v. Perry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
545 U.S. 677 (2005), argued 2 March 2005, decided 27 June 2005 by vote of 5 to 4; Rehnquist for the Court; Scalia, Thomas, and Breyer concurring; Stevens, O’Connor, Souter, and Ginsburg in dissent. ...
McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties Union of Kentucky

McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties Union of Kentucky  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
545 U.S. 844 (2005), argued 2 Mar. 2005, decided 27 June 2005 by vote of 5 to 4; Souter for the Court, O’Connor concurring, Scalia in dissent, joined by Rehnquist, Thomas, and Kennedy in part. Two ...
Lynch v. Donnelly

Lynch v. Donnelly  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
465 U.S. 668 (1984), argued 4 Oct. 1983, decided 5 Mar. 1984 by vote of 5 to 4; Burger for the Court; O’Connor concurring; Blackmun, Brennan, Marshall, and Stevens in dissent. The city of Pawtucket, ...
Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education

Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
333 U.S. 203 (1948), argued 8 Dec. 1947, decided 8 Mar. 1948 by vote of 8 to 1; Black for the Court, Reed in dissent. McCollum v. Board of Education was one of the Supreme Court's early examinations ...
Rosenberger v. University of Virginia

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
515 U.S. 819 (1995), argued 1 Mar. 1995, decided 29 June 1995 by vote of 5 to 4; Kennedy for the Court, O’Connor and Thomas concurring, Souter, Stevens, Ginsburg, and Breyer in dissent. The bitter ...
Truax v. Corrigan

Truax v. Corrigan  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
257 U.S. 312 (1921), argued 29–30 Apr. 1920, reargued 5–6 Oct. 1921, decided 19 Dec. 1921 by vote of 5 to 4; Taft for the Court, Holmes, Pitney (joined by Clarke), and Brandeis in dissent. In the ...
Lee v. Weisman

Lee v. Weisman  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
505 U.S. 577 (1992), argued 6 Nov. 1991, decided 24 June 1992 by vote of 5 to 4; Kennedy for the Court, Blackmun and Souter concurring, joined by Stevens and O’Connor, Scalia in dissent, joined by ...
Flast v. Cohen

Flast v. Cohen  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
392 U.S. 83 (1968), argued 12 Mar. 1968, decided 10 June 1968 by vote of 8 to 1; Warren for the Court, Douglas, Stewart, and Fortas concurring separately, Harlan in dissent. A group of taxpayers sued ...
Georgia v. McCollum

Georgia v. McCollum  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
505 U.S. 42 (1992), argued 26 Feb. 1992, decided 18 June 1992 by vote of 7 to 2; Blackmun for the Court, Rehnquist and Thomas concurring, O’Connor and Scalia dissenting.The Supreme Court in Batson v. ...
Good News Club, Inc. v. Milford Central School

Good News Club, Inc. v. Milford Central School  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
533 U.S. 98 (2001), argued 28 Feb. 2001, decided 11 June 2001 by vote of 6 to 3; Thomas for the Court, Scalia concurring, Breyer concurring in part, Stevens and Souter in dissent, joined by ...
Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Japan  

(1945–52)The Allied occupation of Japan after World War II. After Japan's unconditional surrender on 2 September 1945, it came under the control of the Allied forces of occupation led by General ...
Lemon Test

Lemon Test  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
In Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), the Supreme Court stated three standards, or criteria, by which to decide cases involving disputes about the meaning of the 1st Amendment's establishment clause, which ...
Bunting v. Oregon

Bunting v. Oregon  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
243 U.S. 426 (1917), argued 18 Apr. 1916, reargued 12 June 1916, reargued 19 Jan. 1917, decided 9 Apr. 1917 by vote of 5 to 3; McKenna for the Court, White, Van Devanter, and McReynolds in dissent, ...
Lovell v. City of Griffin

Lovell v. City of Griffin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
303 U.S. 444 (1938), argued 4 Feb. 1938, decided 28 Mar. 1938 by vote of 8 to 0; Hughes for the Court, Cardozo not participating. Although the Supreme Court suggested in Gitlow v. New York (1925) ...
Zelman v. Simmons-harris

Zelman v. Simmons-harris  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
536 U.S. 639 (2002), argued 20 Feb. 2002, decided 27 June 2002 by vote of 5 to 4; Rehnquist for the Court, O’Connor and Thomas concurring, Souter, Stevens, and Breyer in dissent. As part of a plan to ...

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