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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

King's Book of Sports

King's Book of Sports  

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Overview Page
Declarations by James I, and Charles I, kings of England, relating to the permissibility of sports on Sundays. James I issued a royal proclamation in 1618, reissued by Charles I in 1633, authorizing ...
managerial revolution

managerial revolution  

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Overview Page
A concept which points to the supposed shift within the modern corporation from the owner to the professional manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of ...
managerial revolution

managerial revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
132 words

... corporation from the owner to the professional manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of family ownership and private property in contemporary capitalism . The concept originates in a book of that title by James Burnham ( 1941 ) who asserted that not only industrial establishments but state agencies and all other significant organizations would become dominated by a new ruling class of managerial professionals pursuing their own interests. It is also associated with Adolf A. Berle and Gardiner C. Means (...

Christianity

Christianity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
392 words

...was originally a social movement in Judaism , emerging in Jerusalem during the Roman occupation. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 ce , Christianity became increasingly a religion of Gentiles, partly as a consequence of the preaching of the apostle Paul and his establishment of Gentile churches. In Rome, these Christian groups became the targets of political repression, especially under Nero. This persecution resulted in new institutions of martyrdom and sainthood. Although Christianity spread among the lower classes, it eventually won favour...

Zāwiyah

Zāwiyah   Reference library

Beverly Mack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
660 words

...The move from prayer to education is a short step, for the Qurʾān advises that individuals seek knowledge at every step of their lives. Prior to colonial intervention, the zāwiyah was a significant center of learning for affiliates of Ṣūfī brotherhoods. Since the colonial establishment of public schools, which often favored boys’ enrollment, the zāwiyah has continued to function as a venue for women's education in which they attend small, informal classes several times a week. The zāwiyah offers secure space for women to meet to discuss a wide range of...

Coffeehouses and Coffee

Coffeehouses and Coffee   Reference library

Michelle Craig McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...it to Mecca, Cairo, and Istanbul in the sixteenth century. From there, coffee drinking spread to western Europe: the first coffeehouses appeared in Italy , France , and England by the early 1600s and had spread across the Atlantic to North America by the 1680 s. These establishments quickly distinguished themselves from taverns and bars, pubs, and inns. Though almost all early modern public houses provided food and drink, and many also offered lodging and stabling, coffeehouses positioned themselves as business institutions by hosting currency-exchange...

Tuskegee University

Tuskegee University   Reference library

Dana R. Chandler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the school donated land for the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital ( 1923 ), the first and only such hospital staffed by black professionals. Moton continued the institutional relationship with financiers such as Julius Rosenwald ( 1862 – 1932 ), which led to the establishment of a foundation specifically to fund programs for underprivileged portions of society and the education of African Americans. Frederick D. Patterson ( 1901 – 1988 ) was Tuskegee’s third president, serving from 1935 to 1953 . In 1944 he founded Tuskegee’s School of...

Hagarism

Hagarism   Reference library

Matthew Long

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
781 words

...the Qurʾān as one of the anachronistic texts, postulating that its composition occurred well after the eighth century. Crone and Cook, therefore, utilize a number of Near Eastern reports and letters, composed in Syriac, Hebrew, Armenian, and other languages, to recast the establishment of the movement that came to be known as Islam. In their view, Hagarism originated from the Arabs—seen as descendants of Hagar and Ishmael—who were the driving force of this movement that stormed out of Arabia into Palestine. Crone and Cook theorized that the movement was a...

Ṣefātī, Zohreh

Ṣefātī, Zohreh (b. 1948)   Reference library

Mirjam Künkler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
722 words

... opened women's sections. After the establishment of Jāmiʿat al-Zahrāʾ in Qom in 1985, the Islamic Republic's largest women's theological seminary, Ṣefātī became an instructor there, teaching inter alia the highest level of learning, the dars-e khārej , which leads to permission to engage in ejtehād (reasoning based on the Sharīʿah). Ṣefātī received her first revāya in 1996 from Ayatollah Āqā Aslī ʿAlī Yāri Gharavī Tabrīzī and from Ayatollah Mohammad Fāzel Lankarānī (1931–2007). She claims that after having read her book Pazhūhishī-ye feqhī pīrāmūn-e...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

Nancy Micklewright, Yuka Kadoi, and Diane Apostolos-Cappadona

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,695 words

...colonialism. However, since the 1980 and 1990s there has been a rapid growth in the establishment of national museums of modern art, art academies, and private galleries. Many of these institutions have supported the training and the exhibitions of woman painters and curators who have moved beyond the artistic influences of either nineteenth-century Orientalist painters or the hegemony of modern art from the West. For example, in Jordan, Wijdan Ali worked on the establishment of the Royal Society of Fine Arts ( 1979 ), the National Gallery of Fine Arts ( 1980...

Fatayat Nahdlatul ʿUlamāʾ

Fatayat Nahdlatul ʿUlamāʾ   Reference library

Ala’ i Nadjib

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,288 words

...re-interpretation of Islamic teaching was conducted, as in the case of abortion, resulting in the publication of a book on jurisprudence on abortion ( Fikih aborsi ). To gain legal legitimacy and wider moral appeal, Fatayat NU filed a draft on anti-human trafficking to the National Assembly of ʿUlamāʾ held in 2006 . Believing that this effort must be sustainably implemented, Fatayat published a guideline book for migrant workers in 2009 . The book was distributed throughout the Middle East, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia. Fatayat has also engaged in...

Communications Media

Communications Media   Reference library

Hamid Mowlana, Joseph Kéchichian, and Nadine El Sayed

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,004 words

...Abū Bakr, ordered gathering the Qurʾān into one book, forming the first ever maṣḥaf (holy book). Although Abū Bakr was hesitant at first, after many of the Prophet's Companions and Qurʾān reciters died in the battle of Yamama, Companion ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb urged Abū Bakr to gather the Qurʾān quickly into one book in fear of it vanishing with the death of its reciters, or getting inaccurately transmitted through time. Zayd ibn Thabit was ordered to gather the scattered verses of the Qurʾān. The final book was kept with Abū Bakr, followed by ʿUmar ibn...

Trade

Trade   Reference library

Elias Tuma

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,171 words

...in the economy have yet to be determined, however. Bibliography Alserhan, Baker Ahmed . Principles of Islamic Marketing . Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Publishing, 2011. Associated Press . “Malaysia to Ban Obedient Wives Sex Book.” November 3, 2011. Accessed 8/5/2015 at http://www.news24.com/World/News/Malaysia-to-ban-Muslim-womens-sex-book-20111103 Associated Press. “Tunisian Women Demonstrate to Protect Their Rights.” 2 November 2011. Associated Press. “Yemen Uprising Binds Women from Many Walks of Life.” 6 November 2011. Bumiller, Elisabeth . May You Be the...

Utopian and Communitarian Movements

Utopian and Communitarian Movements   Reference library

Catherine M. Rokicky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Fourierism, which criticized civilization and called for cooperation through the establishment of phalanxes. Centered on the phalanstery, which ideally would house 1,620 people, a number Fourier derived by doubling the 810 personality types that he identified, the phalanx depended on agriculture and light industry. Instead of community property, people invested in the phalanx. Men and women would practice free love. The Panic of 1837 and Brisbane’s efforts led to the establishment of more than thirty communities in states including Massachusetts , Ohio , and...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

Hatoon Al-Fassi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,743 words

...of the religious establishment was strengthened in the public arena. Constraints were subsequently imposed on women, pulling them away from the public sphere. The resulting limitations on education, work, and movement were reflected in women's economic participation confining them to jobs that conform to rules of segregation. This has resulted in turning Saudi women into the least economically productive persons in the world, with only 10.5 percent economic participation, not by their own choice, but by state and religious establishment unconscious design....

ʿUdhrī Poetry

ʿUdhrī Poetry   Reference library

Sulafa Abousamra

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,113 words

...and Taha Hussain claim that this genre, free from human carnal desire, has its origins in the peasantry of the semi-Bedouin Hijazi land of Arabia during the first fifty years of Islamic civilization in the 680s ce As the Muslims of Medina and Mecca became involved in the establishment of the new state, the Bedouin Hijazis found solace and refuge from poverty and despair through love poetry and devotion. Bibliography Ḍayf, Shawqī . al-Ḥubb al-ʿudhrī ʿinda al-ʿArab . Cairo: al-Dār al-Miṣrīyah al-Lubnānīyah, 1999. Jawārī, Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Sattār al- . al-Ḥubb...

Life Stages

Life Stages   Reference library

Ron Goeken

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a more rigidly age-defined process? One theory is that in the past the timing of these transitions was articulated more by the family’s collective needs. Children remained at home because they had an obligation to contribute to the family income. In addition, marriage and the establishment of an independent household were often contingent on attaining a minimum resource level, which for the urban working class could be a lengthy process. Over the twentieth century, as the economic well-being of most families became less dependent on the contributions of...

Rawz̤ah Khvānī

Rawz̤ah Khvānī   Reference library

Gustav Thaiss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,828 words

...up against tyranny, injustice, and oppression. In fact, the ubiquity of rawz̤ah khvānī gatherings and their symbolic focus on the defiant roles of Ḥusayn and Zaynab was instrumental in arousing the populace against the shah, and ultimately leading to his downfall and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The message of the Islamic Revolution in Iran resonated throughout the world and more specifically in Lebanon, where several Israeli invasions have left hundreds of thousands of people homeless and poor. One consequence of this was the rise of...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, in 2006 marks an important step toward the establishment and institutionalization of transgender studies in academic settings. The compilation’s...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Lisa Pollard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,734 words

...at home because of her taboo-breaking discussions of women's sexuality. Journalist Safinaz Kazim ( b. 1937 ) joined ranks with al-Ghazali who, after her release from prison in 1971 , once again took up the training of female preachers and continued to call for the establishment of an Islamic state in Egypt. Kazim promoted the idea that women had the right to work, both in and outside the home, suggesting that it is the West, and not Islam, that promotes the idea that the home is women's proper place. The Sadat administration made women's issues...

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