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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

Herodotus

Herodotus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,031 words

...to be borne in mind when reading the early Greek sources on Africa. Herodotus’s most detailed observations are on Egypt, which he saw as the progenitor of Greek civilization. Book I only mentions Egypt obliquely, focusingpon the history of the wars between Greece and Persia. Book II describes Egypt before the Persian Conquest of Cambyses in 525 b.c.e. , which saw the establishment of a new Persian dynasty (the twenty-seventh dynasty), which lasted until 404 b.c.e . Although some observations are clearly firsthand, Herodotus relies greatly on interviews...

Rodney, Walter

Rodney, Walter   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,576 words

... A History of the Guyanese Working People , a book that established the clear pattern of exploitation that plantation owners and the government had engaged in toward the workers of Guyana, whether they were of African, South Asian, or Portuguese descent. In the academic world, the most remarkable fact about Walter Rodney is that, as huge an impact as Upper Guinea Coast made, his polemical monograph, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ( 1973 ), has gone on to be reviled by much of the formal Africanist establishment, while also becoming a seminal influence...

Decolonization

Decolonization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,142 words

...would allow them to achieve these aspirations. Yet, as many African intellectuals have argued, the establishment of sovereign nation-states did not simply undo all that the European colonizers had done in Africa. Frantz Fanon, a psychiatrist, intellectual, and supporter of Algeria’s struggle for independence from France in the 1950 s and 1960 s, regards colonial inequality as a result of capitalism, rather than colonial white supremacy alone. In his book The Wretched of the Earth , he warns against a decolonization process in which an African nationalist...

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

Blyden, Edward Wilmot   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,577 words
Illustration(s):
1

...s, of European, particularly English Protestant, missionary activities in Africa. He accused the missionaries of being arrogant, disdainful of African culture, and demoralizing for African Christians. The book was well received in England and America, even by those readers who disagreed with Blyden’s criticism of European missionaries. A second influential book that synthesized many of Blyden’s attempts to explain and defend African traditional cultures was African Life and Customs , which he published in 1908 . Here he pursued a defense of African polygamy...

Black Power

Black Power   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,924 words

...of community. Education became a priority at all levels, from the individual’s quests for “knowledge of self,” that is, black history, to the struggle for community control of public schools, to the establishment of independent African-centered schools, to the demand on college campuses for Black Studies departments. Multiculturalism, the establishment of Women’s Studies departments, the Gay Pride movement—indeed most minority rights movements, whether on campus or in the wider society—owe a debt to the BPM for paving the way to a more inclusive American...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Clan

Clan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,202 words

...many professed members of a clan are not strictly descendants of its originators because of assumed kinship created by ritual bonds. An African clan consists of more than one family which identifies with an apical forerunner. Legends and myths of origins attribute the establishment of clans to sons or daughters of the primordial ancestor of an entire ethnic cluster. Clans may also have been created by individuals whose members played historic roles in rescuing an ethnic group or shaping its destiny. Other beliefs hold that breakaways of families from...

Wright, Richard

Wright, Richard   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,302 words

... Native Son had a major success: it was adopted as a Book-of-the-Month Club choice, was widely translated, and was adapted for the stage by Orson Welles. In 1941 Wright married Ellen Poplowitz, a fellow communist of Polish descent. Their daughter Julia was born in 1942 . During the war years Wright lived in New York, engaged in various journalistic and literary projects. From 1943 he concentrated on his autobiographical memoir. As originally planned, first announced as “American Hunger,” the book dealt not just with Wright’s life in the South but also...

African Theology

African Theology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
4,454 words

...who brought together African women in 1989 in Ghana to form a community where women would write an inclusive theology that took gender and the experiences of women seriously and that responded to the existence of injustice. Oduyoye’s book Hearing and Knowing set the stage and was followed by the Circle’s first book, The Will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa , edited by Oduyoye and Misimbi R. A. Kanyoro . Members of the Circle study the experience of women in religion and culture, the articulation of cultural hermeneutics, the...

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Crisis magazine, became the major integrationist critic of Garvey. The core of Garvey’s nationalist philosophy has been a constant in the African world for hundreds of years. Sometimes, as in the case of Booker T. Washington, it has clothed itself in relatively conservative garb. Washington was, after all, much loved by the types of establishment figures who harassed and jailed Garvey, and eventually deported him from the United States. In Elijah Muhammad’s post-Garvey Nation of Islam, Garveyite ideas appeared in what many may have perceived to be a more...

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,308 words

...in today’s Ogun State of Nigeria. After ordination, Crowther devoted his time to linguistics as he translated the Holy Bible into the Yoruba language and compiled a Yoruba dictionary. In the same year, 1843 , a grammar book which he started writing during the abortive Niger Expedition was published, and a Yoruba version of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer followed later. He also began codifying other languages. As a result of the Niger Expeditions of 1854 and 1857 , respectively, Crowder produced a primer for the Igbo language in 1857 , another for the...

Fanon, Frantz

Fanon, Frantz   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,332 words

...heartland was France. In accordance with this policy, the class of “evolved” elites of these “overseas departments” could aspire to full citizenship in the French republic and could indeed become scions of the professional-administrative, intellectual, or artistic establishments of France. Thus, with his education, professional training, and intellectual gifts, Fanon belonged to the small circle of “black Frenchmen” who rose to this level of assimilation into French culture and civilization, and began to powerfully assail the system from within. This...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
15,331 words

...why it became a source of inspiration to francophone African intellectuals. According to Alioune Diop (p. 7), the founder of Présence Africaine, Tempels’s book ushered in the era of a new syntax of European discourses on Africa and Africans. “This small book,” he writes in the foreword, “is the most important one I have read on Africa. For my preoccupations drove me to hope for it.” Surely the book had great merits and quickly won over African readers. At the height of colonization, Tempels recognizes, for instance, that black people possess “a...

Baraka, Amiri

Baraka, Amiri   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,232 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Baraka attempted to employ this ideology. He recited the poetry of Hard Facts with the mannerisms of the black nationalist poems, but the social statements and political slogans also evoked the prototype of Langston Hughes’s socialist poems (Sollers, p. 233). In 1974 , the establishment of the Black Women’s United Front (BWUF) came on the heels of the ALSC Conference and the Sixth Pan-African Conference. The BWUF raised the consciousness of African American women, particularly women in the nationalist movement. The BWUF emerged at the International African...

Soyinka, Wole

Soyinka, Wole   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,955 words

...have published, or stage about a dozen major works of drama, fictional and nonfictional prose, and translation. Some of these works are among his most critically acclaimed. In the late 1970 s and 1980 s, Soyinka increasingly came to be perceived as a member of the Nigerian establishment or ruling circles. The award of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986 —the first ever to an African—certainly served to monumentalize him. But much of his writings and cultural activities in this period are still mostly expressed through the prism of the idealism of his more...

Black Arts Movement

Black Arts Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
4,745 words

...rifle-toting mammy, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima ( 1972 ). The period was marked by demands for black curators, black art exhibitions at mainstream museums and galleries (BECC—the Black Emergency Cultural Coalition—was founded in 1969 to agitate for such), as well as the establishment of independent black museums and galleries such as the Studio Museum in Harlem and the Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists in Boston. The period also witnessed the formation of black artists groups, such as Weusi (Swahili for “Black”), who formed a gallery...

Literature and Criticism

Literature and Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
13,550 words

...century, colonial rule had become fairly well established across the continent, and with it came an infrastructural and institutional base just wide enough to support the dissemination of literacy. The introduction of standard orthographies for many indigenous languages, the establishment of schools and printing presses by the missionaries, and the missionaries’ organization of writing competitions and their encouragement of transcriptions and translations of oral traditions lay the groundwork for the steady stream of translations and some creative writing,...

African Art

African Art   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
4,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Osogbo and Tengenenge as artistic and cultural centers of international renown. This approach to art has been appreciated for its nonhierarchical and seemingly egalitarian understanding of art and the sheer drive it demonstrates in its challenge to the Western educational establishment which has come to dominate art training in Africa since the colonial period. It has been criticized for the conceptual and stylistic limitations of some of the artists associated with it. Another front in the creation of contemporary African art is embodied by those artists...

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