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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

establishment book

establishment book   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
111 words

... bookEstablishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm, both civil and military, maintained at the expense of the sovereign or state. These will include officers of the Admiralty, of fortified towns, fortresses (such as the Tower of London), royal palaces, forests, and Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster. They may well also include Royal Household accounts ( see royal household accounts ). Such books are usually...

establishment book

establishment book  

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Overview Page
‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ...
6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for the new craft. For the first time, a group of literate merchants, later defined as *publishers , were willing to invest in book production as a commercial activity. The great increase in the quantity of circulating books, made possible by the new method of mechanical production, resulted in the availability of a larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...are a number of invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...book trade organization, was also established (Kenya’s was second, formed in 1971 , with Ghana’s following in 1975 ). In 1968 , *UNESCO hosted a regional book development conference in Accra, the first of several such regional initiatives. The International Conference on Publishing and Book Development in Africa was convened at Nigeria’s University of Ife in 1973 ; 1975 saw the establishment of the now-defunct UNESCO co-sponsored Regional Book Promotion Centre for Africa in Yaoundé, as well as the first issue of the influential * African Book...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to share the publication of particular works. Another, long-term consequence of the Counter-Reformation, the establishment of Jesuit schools throughout the country, produced a rise in literacy and fostered the development of new printing centres in medium-sized cities such as Douai, Pont-à-Mousson, and Dole. 5 The 17 th century Historians of the book who regard the 16 th century, especially the reign of Henri II ( 1547–59 ), as the apogee in French book arts from both a technical and an aesthetic standpoint, view the 17 th century as a period of decline. This...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... History of Montenegro , was published in Moscow in 1754 . The Mountain Wreath , the best-known book by the Montenegrin national poet and philosopher Petar II (Petrović Njegoš), was also published abroad in 1837 , although by then he had already established his own press ( 1834 ), the second on Montenegrin soil. During a Turkish siege in 1852 its *type had to be melted down for bullets, but in 1858 a new press was obtained. The establishment of a National Public Library in Cetinje was first proposed in 1879 , but implemented only in 1893 ....

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...appeared in the same format as quality literature, often issued by the same publishing houses. The 21 st century has been marked by the establishment of multi-story book ‘megastores’ (e.g. Eleftheroudakis, Ianos, Fnac) in city centres and suburbs. The explosion in book publishing seems unlikely to abate: the 7,450 titles published in 2001 rose to 9,209 in 2006 . Bibliography L. Droulia , History of the Greek Book (2001) [in Greek] D. S. Ginis and V. Mexas , Greek Bibliography 1800–1863 (3 vols, 1939–57) [in Greek] P. Iliou , Additions to the...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...II of Tanjore. In his palace in 1805 , he set up a press that produced eight books in Marathi and Sanskrit. But it was in Madras that a ‘nexus between pundits, printing and public patronage was cemented with the establishment of the College of Fort St George in 1812 ’ (Blackburn, 74). This was followed by the establishment of the Madras School Book Society in 1820 , to cater for students in missionary-run schools. The SPCK’s Vepery Press continued to be active: along with the Madras Male Asylum Press (established in 1789 ), it accounted for a major share of...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a free society continued to be in conflict with a desire to protect some groups within it. 5 The business of books The foundations of the 20 th -century book business had been laid at the end of the previous century. The *Society of Authors , the *Booksellers Association , the Publishers Association, and the literary agent, all had their origins in the late 19 th century. Their establishment pointed toward a more organized, professionalized industry. As the 20 th century wore on, this modernity intensified, as the industry became increasingly...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...book illustration began in the 1860s with the artists Josef Mánes and Mikoláš Aleš . In the 1890s , *Braunerová pioneered the movement for the book as an aesthetic artefact (see *artist’s book ); her compatriot artists *Mucha and František Kupka made their name in book art in France. The journal Moderní revue became a platform for the Decadent and Symbolist movements. The efforts of late-century graphic artists were summarized by Vojtěch Preissig , who provided the theoretical and practical foundation for the development of 20 th -century book...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Raymond of *Chatto & Windus initiated *book tokens . Often given as gifts, the tokens were exchanged towards the purchase of a book, and customers usually spent more than the value of the tokens. The scheme thrived in the difficult economic times of the 1930s and consolidated membership of the *Booksellers’ Association , since the bookseller had to be a member to claim his proportion of the value of the token. Similarly, the *Left Book Club and *Book Society ’s book club, the British counterparts to the *Book-of-the-Month Club and the *Literary...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prosperity and the growth of its governmental administration and universities ensured that printing became a permanent industry. The Catholic Monarchs’ legal measures to stimulate printing and the book trade were potent weapons in their establishment. Printers’ exemption from military service and the reduction of taxes on book imports served to encourage the book trade and turn it into an attractive mercantile sector. These measures also included incentives for citizens to enter the trade, and for foreign printers to consider Spain, and later Portugal,...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The turn of the century saw a huge expansion of the book industry, which continued to flourish during Latvia’s first period of independence. Despite the loss of the famous collection of the dukes of Courland to St Petersburg in 1714 , Latvian libraries have a long history, beginning with the foundation, in 1524 , of Riga City Library which was based on the libraries of secularized monasteries. In 1885 the Jānis-Misiņš-Library was founded, with the aim of documenting the history of the Latvian book. The library of the University of Latvia (founded in ...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...list of the Methodist Book and Publishing House; and Macmillan of Canada. The Great Depression, which lingered through much of the 1930s , hit Canada hard, particularly in the West and among immigrants and blue-collar workers. Publishers became more cautious about Canadian MSS, although textbooks and agency sales continued to return a profit. There was fresh competition from *book clubs , department stores, and cheap imports—so much activity that a new book trade journal, * Quill & Quire (1935– ) , was launched. The establishment by the federal government...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

... 1970s , when two more book clubs were created. Together they achieved a temporary market share of no less than 20 per cent. A characteristic feature of the Dutch book trade was the fixing of book prices, a collective agreement among publishers and retailers enforcing uniform pricing, with the intention of guaranteeing a varied supply of books ( cf . net book agreement ). One undesired effect, however, was overproduction. At the same time, new collective initiatives were adopted by the various branch organizations of the book trade. Book promotion was now...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a programme of Westernizing innovations in the Ottoman capital which also led, less than ten years later, to the establishment of Müteferrika’s famous book-printing establishment, complete with Arabic types cut and cast locally and modelled on the neat Ottoman naskhī bookhand of the period. The first book, an Arabic–Turkish *Dictionary , was printed in 1729 in 500 copies and was followed by sixteen others in Ottoman Turkish, in *editions ranging from 500 to 1,200 copies, before the...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...History of the Book in Hungary Bridget Guzner 1 Book culture in the Middle Ages 2 The Reformation and the baroque age 3 Enlightenment and the Reform era 4 The 20 th century 5 Publishing after 1989 1 Book culture in the Middle Ages The earliest Hungarian written records are closely linked to Christian culture and the Latin language. The first *codices were copied and introduced by travelling monks on their arrival in the country during the 10 th century, not long after the Magyar tribes had conquered and settled in the Carpathian Basin. Written...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...with its past colonies, and successive Spanish governments saw in the book trade a vehicle for this. Thus, new international involvement, and the implementation of a fiscal regime more or less favourable for book exports to the region from the late 1910s to the 1930s , led Spain to become a power in Spanish-language publishing. By 1932 , Spain’s book exports had reached US $1,214,000 (Subercaseaux, 148). Similarly, French involvement in World War I also resulted in a decrease of book exports to Brazil, which in turn favoured Portuguese exports to its...

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