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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

establishment book

establishment book   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
111 words

... bookEstablishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm, both civil and military, maintained at the expense of the sovereign or state. These will include officers of the Admiralty, of fortified towns, fortresses (such as the Tower of London), royal palaces, forests, and Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster. They may well also include Royal Household accounts ( see royal household accounts ). Such books are usually...

establishment book

establishment book  

Reference type:
Overview Page
‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ...
Contractions

Contractions   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
979 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...moral plane. They’ve just suffered more.” Jonathan Rosen , “The Trivialization of Tragedy,” in Dumbing Down: Essays on the Strip Mining of American Culture 270, 280 ( Katharine Washburn & John F. Thornton eds., 1996 ). • “Weinstein doesn't doubt that the Hollywood establishment wishes him ill, but he doesn't think it's personal.” Ken Auletta , “Beauty and the Beast,” New Yorker , 16 Dec. 2002 , at 81. The common fear is that using contractions can make the writing seem breezy. For most of us, though, that risk is nil. What you gain should be a...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it became easier to find them. Books could be bought, hired, or borrowed either from commercial establishments and institutions or from individuals. The humblest literature— *almanacs , *ballads , chap-books, and other forms of *street literature —could be purchased from the itinerant pedlars and chapmen who travelled the countryside selling trinkets, gifts, household goods, and toys. Even the most prosperous establishments stocked items other than books, for book-selling alone was rarely sufficient to make a decent living, and not all the commodities and...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...1819 , illustrated by George *Cruikshank ), and a number of antiquarian works: The Apocryphal New Testament ( 1820 ), Ancient Mysteries Described ( 1823 , on the peepshows, processions, and dramas of medieval London), The Everyday Book ( 1826–7 , dedicated to * Lamb , with contributions by * Clare ), and The Table Book ( 1827–8 , a second massive compilation). Appropriately enough, it was this down-market publisher who gave the urban crowd the concept of a popular cultural history. When first-generation Romantic poets are picked off for individual...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...'s The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterer's Guide , published after his death by his wife in successive editions of 1788 , 1789 , and 1794 , was the first major furniture pattern book to appear after the third edition of Thomas Chippendale 's Director in 1762 , and was heavily dependent on Adam. Thomas Sheraton 's ( 1751–1806 ) The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book , published in parts between 1791 and 1794 (with a second edition in 1794 and a third in 1802 ), attracted 700 subscribers, including cabinet-makers, joiners, carvers,...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...his account, and who further perpetuated notions of Cook the enlightener in an influential biography, The Life of Captain James Cook ( 1788 ). Dissent and especially *Unitarianism played a major role in the Welsh renaissance. Rational Dissenting hostility to church establishments found strongly sympathetic resonances in Wales where between 1727 and 1870 not a single Welsh-speaking cleric was appointed to the episcopate. Welsh Enlightenment also had cultural and especially linguistic dimensions which found no counterpart in Rational Dissent across...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fictive and documentary account. As a woman in humble circumstances, Southcott typically had far less exposure to literature than male counterparts like Clare and Egan—her early reading was virtually confined to the Bible and an aunt's hymn-book. Yet her famous prophecies were also deeply influenced by half a dozen chap-book romances which she later transformed into Christian allegories, as well as by ubiquitous popular almanacs in the vein of Moore's and, more surprisingly, by detailed daily news stories which disciples read out to her. Underpinning all these...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ended up making financial losses, for it was difficult to oversee the work and few products could be sold. In the second decade of the 18th century the Society for the Propagation (later Promotion) of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), founded in 1698 , began a campaign for the establishment of workhouses in market towns and the larger rural parishes up and down the country under managers who would employ the poor in useful work. In 1723 an Act gave belated recognition to this movement, authorizing the combination of parishes, if necessary, and empowering vestry...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...landmark at the end of the century was the establishment of The Victoria History of the Counties of England . The VCH , as it is commonly known, began as a private enterprise in 1899 . It aimed to be a comprehensive work of reference, an authoritative work of scholarship, and a starting point for future research for all the counties of England. The influence of the old county histories is reflected in the plan of the general volumes, which cover natural history and earthworks and a transcript of the Domesday Book entries, as well as chapters on...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rates for the upkeep of church buildings and churchyards, a right much changed and eroded in the nineteenth century. The intrinsically problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ‘a popular though far less useful application of the Institution’. The expenditure of public funds on creating and maintaining collections that were predominantly scientific and ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Acts of 1833 and 1842 ) in order to provide two hours of schooling six days a week for their child workers aged 9 to 13. The numerous private schools were often ephemeral, many of them dismissed contemptuously as ‘dame schools’, for they were little more than childminding establishments, though the more successful ones were listed as ‘private academies’ in trade and commercial directories . The emergence of a sizeable middle class created a demand for superior private schools, especially for girls. The Churches were active in promoting both day proprietary...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and diversity of organic life. There was a shift from a static natural history to a history of nature, one that sought a genetic account of the development of the present order from the past. The Scottish natural philosopher James *Hutton played a major role in the establishment of another new science, geology, arguing in his Theory of the Earth ( 1795 ) that earth history showed ‘no vestige of a beginning—no prospect of an end’. This concept of ‘deep time’ (as it is now called) provided an explanatory framework for the study of the processes by...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In this larger process, Ralph Griffiths 's ( 1720–1803 ) Monthly Review; or Literary Journal ( 1749 ) and Tobias Smollett 's ( 1721–71 ) Critical Review; or Annals of Literature ( 1758 ) carved out an audience of avid mid-century book readers and buyers. The new reviews promoted a fourfold increase in British book production and consumption between 1750 and 1800 . Their impact was much greater than their paid circulations (3,000–4,000 copies per month) would indicate—universities, reading societies, private academies, and libraries subscribed while...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...onwards landowners returned to farming their own demesnes. In part this was due to the influence of classical writers such as Cato, Varro, and Columella, whose works were appearing in print; surviving copies are underlined and well thumbed. The first English book on agriculture— Fitzherbert 's Book of Husbandry —appeared in 1523 . The gentry were urged to see themselves as responsible, patriarchal figures. This advice became all the more attractive when food prices began their steady upward trend from about 1515 and farming became more profitable. Many...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... Localized research has challenged the ways in which national history has been viewed. The county format was also used by the Hodder and Stoughton series of landscape histories, under Hoskins's editorship. A purely practical reason for favouring the county unit was the establishment of county record offices ; the bulk of the archives, outside those of the major national collections, are housed together, whereas those of neighbouring counties are held in other county towns. Yet for many regional studies the county is not a satisfactory unit; for instance,...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1798 rebellion. Another pioneer was James Donnelly , in his landmark book The Land and the People of Nineteenth‐Century Cork ( 1975 ), and in his subsequent work on popular protest. In Ulster, W. H. Crawford's detailed studies have always insisted on the primacy of local contexts; over four decades in different institutions, he has championed the role of local history. A magnificent example of what can be achieved via detailed local case studies is Willie Smyth's award‐winning book Map‐Making, Landscapes and Memory: A Geography of Colonial and Early...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... with Ireland in 1800 and the Catholic Relief Act of 1829 ). Nevertheless, hidden tensions between the continuance of the common law tradition and the full exercise of parliamentary sovereignty became apparent during the reign of George III . In the first place, the legal establishment took it for granted that the common law courts should remain the foundational source of regular legal development. Hence the Westminster Hall jurisdictions of *King 's Bench, *Common Pleas , and *Exchequer remained the centre of the legal universe in England until the...

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