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Overview

environmentalism

A belief in and concern for the importance and influence of environment within a society. ‘Environment’ is derived simply from the French verb environner, to surround. Our ...

environmentalism

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...are changed by subtle manipulations of context and, in turn, affect environmental behaviour. Market environmentalism is defined by T. Anderson and D. Leal ( 2001 ) as a mode of resource regulation that promises both economic and environmental health via market means, offering a ‘virtuous fusion of economic growth, efficiency, and environmental conservation’. See Bailey (2007) AAAG 97, 3 on territorializing market environmentalism, and Davis (2006) Geog. J. 172, 2...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,795 words

...the implicit environmental costs. And even national environmental institutions, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are beginning to connect environmental factors to matters of national security, and security agencies are considering the threats due to environmental degradation. The proliferation of new actors in world politics—including environmental actors—and new forms of cross-border, transnational linkages have as an underlying cause the transnational networks sharing a modicum of technical consensus about environmental degradation....

environmentalism

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A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
100 words

... An ethos that puts fundamental importance on the relationship between human beings and their actions with the physical environment. Consumers are showing an increasing desire for environmentally friendly products and are prepared to pay a premium price for them. The reputations of companies can be injured if they damage the environment and their reputations can be enhanced if they are perceived as helping the environment. Environmentalism must therefore be a major consideration for all marketing and corporate reputation building. Products that...

environmentalism

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
359 words

... The beliefs and practices associated with concern for the environment, particularly for the negative impacts of human activity on nature . Environmentalism covers a very broad range of ideas and actions, although they share the proposition that the environment is something apart from society and under threat from it. A helpful distinction was made by Tim O’ Riordan in Environmentalism ( 1976 ). He noted two polar types of environmentalism: technocentrism and ecocentrism. Technocentrism implies faith in the ability of human societies to...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Nazli Choucri

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,941 words

...of environmentalism reviewed above represented a nascent perceptive, one that took shape throughout the last decades of the twentieth century. This initial view can be referred to as “old” environmentalism, which then provided foundations for the “new” environmentalism and the notable expansion of the environmental domain itself. In substantive terms, new environmentalism is defined by three interacting sets of emergent features. The first relates to the impact of globalization on environmentalism and the globalization of environmentalism itself....

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Nazli Choucri

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,639 words

...of international responses to environmental problems. Central to emergent understandings of environmental imperatives is a shift away from unrestricted economic growth as a necessary condition for human well-being toward the notion of sustainable development as a competing and increasingly powerful alternative. The former explicitly extracted economic activity from any environmental frame of reference; the latter defined environmental viability as a necessary condition for overall human well-being. The “new environmentalism” assumes the dependence of social...

environmentalism

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Lincoln Allison

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
348 words

...century environmentalism has come to refer to a combination of beliefs in the value and fragility of the environment, and a tendency to be conservationist with respect to it, leaving the expression ‘environmental determinism’ to cover the old meaning of the word. Unfortunately, what was intrinsically a very broad concept has been further stretched to the point of meaninglessness. Just as ‘environmental studies’ can embrace geography, biology, chemistry, law, history, politics, and many other disciplines, the concerns of environmentalism can range from...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,206 words

...end of the spectrum of national environmental non‐government organisations in Australia. Broader influence of environmentalism on Australian political institutions during the 1970s and 1980s represented a watershed in environmental law, public administration, and Commonwealth–state relations . The early 1970s saw the establishment of environmental protection agencies in most states, along with significant reforms to planning legislation. Environmental protection agencies, which were modelled on the US National Environmental Protection Agency, were...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Donald Worster and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,704 words

...and more politically acceptable, emphasis on creating a new “green future” in which environmentally sensitive cities, economies, and technologies would all be reembedded in the tangled web of life. [ See also Atomic Energy Commission ; Carson, Rachel ; Conservation Movement ; Conservatism ; Environmental Policy: An Overview ; Environmental Policy: Clean Air Act ; Environmental Policy: Clean Water Act ; Environmental Policy: Endangered Species Act ; Environmental Protection Agency ; Feminism ; National Park System ; Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

Environmentalism.

Environmentalism.   Reference library

Donald Worster and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,643 words

...pesticides banned by the courts as a threat to the health of both human beings and natural ecosystems. The National Environmental Policy Act ( 1969 ) set up a federal regulatory agency, the Environmental Protection Agency , and required an “environmental impact statement” for any federally funded project that might cause damage to the earth. The 1963 Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty , a ban on DDT use in the United States, and the passage of many new laws (including the 1960 Clean Water Act and the 1963 Clean Air Act) all sprang from growing conviction...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Donald Worster and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the health of both human beings and natural ecosystems, the fund sought to get them banned by the courts. The National Environmental Policy Act ( 1969 ) required the preparation of an “environmental assessment” and an “environmental impact statement” for any federally funded project that might cause damage to the earth. On 2 December 1970 , following a proposal by President Richard M. Nixon, a new federal regulatory agency, the Environmental Protection Agency, was established. Meanwhile the 1963 Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, a ban on DDT use in the ...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,301 words

... Since the beginning of modern human development in Africa some six million years ago, people have faced extreme environmental conditions and challenges. With a continent as vast and diverse as Africa, it is important to note that environmental conditions and problems are varied and specific to place and time. Despite the differences throughout the continent, however, there are some questions and issues that arise frequently as Africans continue to deal with their individual environmental challenges. It is a popular misconception that Africa’s...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Christian C. Young

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...least eight years of mounting expectations. Tension over how environmental ideals would survive the relentless process of modernization simmered beneath Earth Day festivities. Environmentalists had much to celebrate in 1970 . The year before, the federal government had passed a sweeping National Environmental Policy Act and created a bureau to oversee environmental regulation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would review environmental impact statements for projects with federal funding that posed a potential risk to natural systems. Although this...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Gordon Sayre

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Environmentalism Many important thinkers of the American Enlightenment contributed to the development of environmental sciences, as well as describing the beauties of American nature. We are inclined to think of Environmentalism as a modern phenomenon, as a consequence of overpopulated, industrialized societies on a planet of limited resources. In colonial America, by contrast, many early European visitors claimed to find a land of pastoral bounty, where resources such as fish were so numerous that, according to William Wood, alewives “come up the fresh...

environmentalism

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... 1. The political beliefs that motivate an organized social movement of people who share a concern about solving problems of environmental pollution and natural resources . Environmental concern is reflected in a number of different ways, including membership of environmental pressure groups and campaigning organizations (such as Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace ), sympathy for and engagement with environmental politics , green consumerism , local environmental activism , and adoption of lifestyles that are environment‐friendly ....

Chinese Environmentalism

Chinese Environmentalism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,221 words

...groups of Chinese citizens in environmental protection as a field for active participation (as compared to other fields) contributes to the growth of green NGOs. Possible explanations for citizen involvement in the environmental field are its alleged political innocence, the occurrence of environmentally induced health risk or the large media attention for environmental topics. A less pragmatic explanation could be that the typical “Chinese” perception of nature, based on traditional religions, encourages environmental activism. A Chinese Perception of...

Radical Environmentalism

Radical Environmentalism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
7,372 words

...the embrace of direct action and support for extra-legal nature defense is an important common denominator in radical environmental sub-cultures, it is even more important to understand radical environmentalism as a cluster of environmental political philosophies, and corresponding social movements, which claim to understand the roots of the environmental crisis and offer effective solutions to it. In this sense radical environmentalism includes not only groups like Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front , but also bioregionalists and green...

free market environmentalism

free market environmentalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
179 words

...market environmentalism ( FME ) An approach to managing environmental goods, services, and resources that relies on market mechanisms. These mechanisms include assigning clear property rights where they do not exist, establishing prices where they were hitherto absent, and trading environmental goods, services, and resources as commodities . Environmentalists have tended to see markets—especially capitalist markets—as anti-ecological. The advocates of FME—the study and refinement of which has been led by environmental economists—argue that markets can be...

Israel and Environmentalism

Israel and Environmentalism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,842 words

...and Environmentalism Environmental History Prior to the Foundation of Modern Israel Efforts to protect the land of Israel or the Holy Land from environmental damage are recent. Since the advent of the Roman conquest and the destruction of the second Jewish commonwealth, evidence exists of steady land degradation, overgrazing and deforestation. Yet, none of the many occupying powers who governed the land seems to have considered environmental issues meaningfully during their rule prior to the twentieth century. Rather, the ecological deterioration was...

Nature and Environmentalism

Nature and Environmentalism   Reference library

Peter A. Kopp and Ryan Powell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the environment, but also explained how pesticides harmed humans. As a result, her work emphasized the connection of humans to their environment. The Modern Environmental Movement. Even before Carson's call to address the environmental dangers of industrial chemicals, nongovernmental organizations succeeded in protecting the physical environment. Some historians date the origins of the modern environmental movement to the early 1950s when David Brower and the Sierra Club ( 1892 ) saved part of Dinosaur National Monument from inundation of dam building by the...

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