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Overview

electoral system

Any set of rules whereby the votes of citizens determine the selection of executives and/or legislators. Electoral systems may be categorized in several ways. The most useful is probably a ...

electoral system

electoral system   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
256 words

... system Any set of rules whereby the votes of citizens determine the selection of executives and/or legislators. Electoral systems may be categorized in several ways. The most useful is probably a three‐way division into plurality , majoritarian, and proportional systems. For national elections, plurality systems are found only in Great Britain and some former British colonies (including the United States and India) ( see first-past-the-post ). Majoritarian systems are found in France and Australia for legislative elections, and in about half of the...

electoral system

electoral system  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...of victory, in order to make the total number of representatives proportional to the popular vote. While PR systems more closely represent actual voter preferences, they tend to encourage multiple-party systems and coalition governments. Variations of each of these systems also exist, as do a variety of other possible rules for electoral systems. Voting, for example, may be voluntary or required by law. In nearly all modern political systems, each citizen's vote is equally weighted, but elections held in other kinds of organizations sometimes follow other...

Australia, electoral system of

Australia, electoral system of   Quick reference

Kenneth Morgan

Dictionary Plus Society and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture
Length:
172 words

...Australia, electoral system of The Australian electoral system has evolved over 150 years or more of democratic government. Among its distinctive features are compulsory voting for the state and federal parliaments, with fines for non-compliance; the use of secret ballots; full preferential instant run-off voting in single member seats to elect the lower house, the House of Representatives; and the use of group-ticket single-transferable proportional voting to elect the upper house, the Senate. Since 1984 the distribution of the preferences has occurred for...

New Zealand, electoral system of

New Zealand, electoral system of   Quick reference

Rebecca Lenihan

Dictionary Plus Society and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture
Length:
386 words

...New Zealand, electoral system of Since 1996 the electoral system of New Zealand has been one of mixed member proportional representation (MMP), following a referendum in 1993 . Under MMP voters receive two votes, one for the political party they want to represent them in parliament, and one for the candidate they would like to represent their local electorate. The number of MPs a party receives is determined by the share of the party vote it receives; for example if a party were to receive 15 per cent of the party vote, that party would receive 15 per cent...

Electoral Systems and System Reforms in Latin America

Electoral Systems and System Reforms in Latin America   Reference library

Brian F. Crisp and Patrick Cunha Silva

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,738 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Electoral Systems and System Reforms in Latin America This article will detail the wide array of electoral systems that have been used in the democracies of Latin America. It discusses the differences in incentives electoral systems can create for parties and party systems and then catalogs where the systems used in Latin America (since 1980 ) fall in terms of those. In addition to identifying patterns in electoral system choice, it will look at the frequency and direction of changes made in electoral systems. The frequency with which regimes have engaged...

electoral system

electoral system  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Any set of rules whereby the votes of citizens determine the selection of executives and/or legislators. Electoral systems may be categorized in several ways. The most useful is probably a three‐way ...
electoral systems

electoral systems   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
472 words

... systems Whilst there are innumerable ways of organizing any system of elections , there are four broad models that have been adopted for electing political representatives in the democracies of the world: ‘first past the post’ (the simple plurality system), the alternative vote, the single transferable vote, and the party list system. For elections to the House of Commons (that also determine which party forms the government), the system remains ‘first past the post’. Under this electoral system, the United Kingdom is divided into geographical...

Electoral systems

Electoral systems   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,188 words

... systems Whenever an office‐holder or a representative to sit in a legislative body is to be chosen by a number of persons, known as electors or voters, an electoral system must be devised to manage and regulate the election process. The franchise by which electors qualify to vote and the electoral system that converts their votes into seats in the legislature will be controversial. Two centuries of experimentation and debate have left a wide assortment of electoral systems. The authoritative handbook by Reynolds and Reilly ( 1997 ) identifies nine...

Legislative Authority

Legislative Authority   Reference library

Muhammad Khalaf-Allah

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,409 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Imam [‘Abduh] lead us to the conclusion that there are two rules: the rule of selecting “those in authority,” and the electoral rule that is applied in those countries that build their authority on the basis of counsel. The Professor Imam's [‘Abduh's] mention of the second rule indicates that general elections had not yet been mandated during his lifetime, and that governing was not parliamentary. Today, we practice our electoral life based on the second rule. We have a parliament, and in it there are a variety of specialized committees...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...themselves effectively, they often elected notably radical representatives. Middlesex as well as the City of London, Westminster, Norwich, and other large towns were able to elect reformers to parliament, and it should not be forgotten that it was under the unreformed electoral system that the *Whigs secured a substantial majority in favour of *parliamentary reform in the general election of 1831 . National issues often did not interest townsfolk as much as the need to solve the various local problems associated with urbanization, such as regulating...

African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...are the colonial equivalent to the London Gazette and most start in the mid‐1800s. Many early newspapers are the predecessors to the government gazettes and contain similar information. The information in the gazettes varies from colony to colony but can include tax lists; electoral registers; grants of government lands; arrears of rent on government land; letters at the post offices; licences (for example, for guns, dogs, boats, and chemists); changes of name; first‐class passengers; lists of jurors, midwives, constables, nurses, and militia officers;...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...character and motive rather than outward to the changing world of ideas—scientific, economic, religious, and political. In Melincourt ( 1817 ) Peacock turns to the romance, creating a heroine in search of a knight errant in a modern society stained with mercenary marriages, electoral corruption, and paper money. Maid Marian ( 1822 ) further extends the use of romance and folk-tale in a mock-medieval satire on modern politics; while in The Misfortunes of Elphin ( 1829 ) Peacock blends Arthurian and ancient Welsh legend, a contest of the bards, and an...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Crown ( 1776 ), and (more gradually) on the freedom of contract. Indeed, the centrality of individualistic rights to politics and the constitution in eighteenth-century England ensured that sensitive political and constitutional issues (for example the questions of personal, electoral, and press freedom raised by the *Wilkites in the 1760s and 1770s) were still frequently fought out in the courts rather than in parliament. So while formal constitutional principle meant that the courts were ultimately vulnerable to the assumption of positive sovereignty by...

Democracy or Shuracracy

Democracy or Shuracracy   Reference library

Murad Hofmann

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... once and for all. (Cornerstone number 11.) Abu Bakr, his first successor, was elected after a heated argument between the Muslims from Makkah and those of al-Madinah, ‘Umar, the second successor, was appointed by acclamation. The third successor, ‘Uthman, emerged from an electoral council of six. It follows that Islam understands monarchy, too, only as an elected monarchy. Any new king must be confirmed, at least by accla-mation, and preferably through the described baya’ —the process by which the successor to the throne and the people's representatives...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and showed no great concern with ordinary people's civil liberties; it suspended habeas corpus to deal with the radical agitations of the 1790s and the immediate postwar period, it resisted initial moves to reduce the number of capital crimes, and it defended their narrow electoral base against calls for *parliamentary reform and *Catholic emancipation . The opposition to a paid police was mainly a fear of the consequences of a police in the hands of a potentially over-mighty central government. Back-bench country squires, in particular, felt that the...

Liberation Theology: Latin America

Liberation Theology: Latin America   Reference library

M. Daniel Carroll R.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,826 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...situation over the last decade have had a profound effect on the fortunes of liberation theology. For example, the collapse of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and the electoral defeats of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua (1990, 1996) have created a crisis in the Latin American left and influenced liberationists as well. The hope of a more equitable socio-economic system, embodied for some in the socialist hope, appears to have disappeared before the pressures of a global capitalistic economy. From a very different angle, among those who champion...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...are extant for the subsidy before 1332 , and virtually none for the early Tudor subsidies; nor for the hearth tax in the periods when it was administered by farmers; nor for the land tax before 1780 (after which returns had to be deposited with the clerk of the peace for electoral purposes). The historian is forced to rely on a small number of oft‐cited taxes: 1377–81, 1524–5, 1664 , and the first extant land tax return. Moreover, the returns which do survive vary considerably in their utility. This is especially true of the Henrician lay subsidies....

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...time by using genealogical methods. Free maps of the most frequent 25 000 surnames in the 1881 census are also available online, but these are arranged only by counties. This web site also provides distribution maps, colour‐coded by counties, of surnames taken from the 1998 electoral registers. Support for the idea that very many surnames have a single‐family origin has come in recent years from genetics, using DNA samples to compare the structure of Y chromosomes which, like surnames, are handed down from father to son. Indeed, Bryan Sykes has argued in ...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...focus on local governance is the key to engaging more people in the public domain to influence policies that affect their day to day life. This does not mean that official political bodies should be neglected, nor undermined. On the contrary, this approach should strengthen the electoral process but also allow women to have constant influence and power over policy making and decision taking. 9 Women's movements engaged in formal politics may risk being co-opted by the state, or making concessions regarding the wider democratic transformation, in order to guarantee...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is to identify these local societies, which, despite the mobility of recent generations, often survive to the present day. Genetic evidence, based on DNA samples, together with localized patterns of †surnames, revealed by an analysis of UK telephone directories and electoral registers , show that Britain is still composed of numerous local societies with marked individual characteristics. Many of these are of ancient origin, though, of course, they have never been static. In Victorian times their identity was much stronger than it is now; it was...

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