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ecological imperialism

A theory conceived by Alfred Crosby in his 1986 book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900, which proposes that colonization was not only a form of cultural ...

ecological imperialism

ecological imperialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... imperialism A process of biological transformation brought about, intentionally or unintentionally, by colonizers in the developing world. The classic text is A. Crosby ( 2004 ), which is well reviewed by Hody (1991) Pols & Life Scis 10, 1, 81 , although she adds the rider ‘to acknowledge the impact of ecological imperialism should in no way diminish the importance and relevance of other types of imperialism...

ecological imperialism

ecological imperialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
101 words

... imperialism A deliberate or accidental introduction of new plants, animals, and diseases by European invaders and settlers of the New World, including the Americas and Australasia. The term was coined by historian Alfred W. Crosby (1931–2018) to describe how Europeans gained an advantage in conquering new territories and peoples less through the force of arms or technological supremacy, and more through the alteration of indigenous habitats to suit their needs. Above all, the impact of communicative diseases such as measles, cholera, and influenza...

ecological imperialism

ecological imperialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... imperialism A theory conceived by Alfred Crosby in his 1986 book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900 , which proposes that colonization was not only a form of cultural and political tyranny, it was also a form of environmental terrorism. Indeed, Crosby goes so far as to argue that the ecological dimension was in fact primary. His reason for suggesting this is the evident fact that wherever colonists settled they brought with them diseases that devastated the local populations (of both people and plants and animals)...

ecological imperialism

ecological imperialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... imperialism A theory conceived by Alfred Crosby (1931–2018) in his 1986 book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900 , which proposes that colonization was not only a form of cultural and political tyranny, it was also a form of environmental terrorism. Indeed, Crosby went so far as to argue that the ecological dimension was in fact primary. His reason for suggesting this was the evident fact that wherever colonists settled they brought with them diseases that devastated the local populations (of both people and...

Ecological Imperialism

Ecological Imperialism   Reference library

Alfred W. CROSBY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
1,426 words

...Ecological Imperialism Imperialism is usually considered to be a political and sometimes an economic or religious phenomenon. But it also has an ecological side: imperialists have intentionally, more often unintentionally, and always inevitably carried with them plants, animals, and microlife from their lands of origin to their new lands. Where imperialists have been successful not simply in conquest but also in settlement, they have done so with the indispensable assistance of the life forms they brought with them. The most successful imperialists have...

ecological imperialism

ecological imperialism  

A theory conceived by Alfred Crosby in his 1986 book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900, which proposes that colonization was not only a form of cultural and ...
imperialism

imperialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
394 words

...the Americas from the 16th century onwards ( see ecological imperialism ). Other European powers, notably France and England, followed them into the Americas and Caribbean. The second, linked more to mercantile capitalism, saw the Dutch and British expand into South and Southeast Asia from the 18th century on. The third phase, sometimes characterized as the Scramble for Africa or ‘high imperialism’ centred on European occupation of Africa from the 1880s ( see Berlin Conference ). In one view, imperialism subsided during the wave of post- 1945 ...

Christianity (9) – Christianity's Ecological Reformation

Christianity (9) – Christianity's Ecological Reformation   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,018 words

...ecological reformers. Generally, biotic justice means recognizing that other species, given their intrinsic values, are entitled to “fair shares” of planetary goods, especially healthy habitats for sustaining viable populations until the end of their evolutionary time. Defining “fair shares” is extremely difficult, of course, particularly when humans must destroy other life forms in order to survive and create in a predatorial biosphere. Still, say the reformers, the struggle to define fair shares is an essential moral task to control human imperialism....

Pocahontas

Pocahontas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the American Musical

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Performing arts, Music
Length:
234 words

...told and rather low key for a children's movie. In fact, many children were bored. None of the animals talked, there was no fantasy or magic save a little conjuring by Grandmother Willow (voice of Linda Hunt ), the issues were mature ones (ecological awareness, racial intolerance, the evils of imperialism), and at the end the lovers are separated. No wonder adults found more to savor than kids. Pocahontas (Irene Bedard, singing by Judy Kuhn ) was portrayed as a full-grown woman rather than the young girl she really was, and Captain John Smith ...

ecocriticism

ecocriticism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...many ecocritics are also active in the environmental justice movement, whose concern is the uneven and generally inequitable distribution of the burden of environmental degradation (e.g. poorer countries tend to be more polluted than richer countries). See also ecological imperialism . Further Reading: L. Buell The Environmental Imagination (1995). G. Garrard Ecocriticism (2004). C. Glotfelty and H. Fromm (eds.) The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Ecology (1995). L. Marx The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in...

ecocriticism

ecocriticism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...many ecocritics are also active in the environmental justice movement, whose concern is the uneven and generally inequitable distribution of the burden of environmental degradation (e.g. poorer countries tend to be more polluted than richer countries). See also ecological imperialism . Further Reading: L. Buell The Environmental Imagination (1995). G. Garrard Ecocriticism (2004). C. Glotfelty and H. Fromm (eds.) The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Ecology (1995). L. Marx The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in...

Ecological Ethics

Ecological Ethics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,376 words

...given human propensities—since the rise of capitalism, imperialism, and industrialism—to destroy and exploit the natural and cultural conditions of life. Therefore, it is essential that we also acknowledge the vantage point of those thinkers who propose a chaotic ecology of disturbance, such as the scholar Devon Peña , for example. Peña uses non-equilibrium (chaotic) models of ecosystems to study the articulation of cultural and ecological systems. This approach also focuses on the cultural and ecological effects of displacement through enclosure by capital of...

Economic Imperialism

Economic Imperialism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,133 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Alfred R. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900 . Cambridge, 1986. Davis, Lance E. , and Robert A. Huttenback , with Susan Gray Davis . Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire: The Political Economy of British Imperialism, 1860–1912 . Cambridge, 1986. Dumett, Raymond E. , ed. Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Imperialism: The New Debate on Empire . Harlow, U.K., 1999. Frank, Andre Gunder . Dependent Accumulation and Under-Development . London, 1978. Gallagher, John , and Ronald E. Robinson . The Imperialism of Free Trade ....

Annales school

Annales school   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
302 words

...the long-term evolution of social systems in relation to cultural, economic, demographic, and ecological change. This perspective challenged the chronological and narrative conventions of contemporary historical writing, which tended to privilege the political and military history of nations—what Braudel dismissed as histoire événementielle (event history). Instead, the Annales school historians focused their attention on long-term forces such as imperialism, industrialization, and the transition from feudalism to capitalism. For Braudel, this involved...

anarchist geography

anarchist geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
349 words

...la Terre (1905–8), spelled out a more sustainable or non-exploitative relationship between society and the environment. Like Kropotkin, his views were echoed by later Greens and environmentalists. Both men also stressed the significance of a geographical education to oppose imperialism, racism, and exploitation. There was a brief revival of interest in Kropotkin and Reclus during the early years of radical geography in the 1960s and 1970s, but no sustained elaboration of anarchist geography to compare with Marxist or feminist geography. The influence of...

Christianity (6c4) – Anglicanism

Christianity (6c4) – Anglicanism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
842 words

...colonization of the so-called “new world,” a number of Anglican clergy developed a rhetoric that supplied colonialists with a theology that justified the appropriation, use, and ecological invasion of the colonized lands, animals and plants. Thus Anglican divines such as geographer Richard Hakluyt , Samuel Purchas and poet John Donne justified the disruption of ecological systems by appealing to a divine plan of salvation, arguing that colonization would hasten the coming of the kingdom. Hakluyt's promotion campaign of English settlements along with...

Sauer, Carl

Sauer, Carl   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of mass production (“commodity fetishism”). Globally, he felt the “imperialism of production” was as bad as the old, colonial imperialism, and mass culture was destroying older and less robust societies. Social theory was insidious because it led to cultural hegemony and homogeneity, leading to the end of diversity and individual action and scholarship. A deeply conservative person, Sauer was never formally an environmentalist, and, indeed, thought the movement little more than an “ecological binge.” However, his ideas had a resonance with many activists and...

Inca Empire

Inca Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
561 words

...against hard times. Faced with severe ecological difficulties such as mountainous terrain, very high arid plateaus, and coastal deserts, the Inca and their predecessors undertook remarkable feats of environmental engineering and adaptation, much of the work carried out by forced labor. Irrigation was well developed, and the intricate terracing of mountainsides is a notable feature of highland Peru to this day. By adapting to variations in climate and altitude, the Incas set up a vast system of complementary ecological niches, producing cold-climate tubers and...

colonialism

colonialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
794 words

...power across the world. Portugal, Spain, Holland, France, Britain, Germany, and other European countries extended their control in three main forms: settler societies , generally where climate and soils suited the transfer of peoples from temperate environments ( see ecological imperialism ); dependencies, where small colonial elites ruled larger populations; and enclaves or outposts to protecting maritime trade routes. In the former case, colonialism sometimes involved the extermination or displacement of indigenous peoples ( see plantation society );...

Population, Consumption, and Christian Ethics

Population, Consumption, and Christian Ethics   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,608 words

...the world's population is by addressing the twin challenges of poverty and patriarchy ( 1992 : 263–4). Sallie McFague makes similar arguments in her work, though she has focused more on the ecological challenges posed by rapacious rates of consumption in wealthy, industrialized nations. McFague argues in The Body of God that those most responsible for global ecological degradation are “first-world, usually white, usually male, entrepreneur(s) involved in a high-energy, high-profit business” ( 1993 : 4). More recently, McFague argues in Life Abundant that...

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