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early modern period in Europe

The early modern period includes overlapping epochs that have been variously called the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Restoration, the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, and the Age of ...

early modern period in Europe

early modern period in Europe   Reference library

The Companion to Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
293 words

... modern period in Europe The early modern period includes overlapping epochs that have been variously called the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Restoration, the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, and the Age of Revolution. Each of these terms designates specific intellectual, artistic, religious, economic, political, and scientific developments in Western culture. Influential cultural historians of the late twentieth century used the term ‘early modern’ to describe Europe and England from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries; for historians it...

early modern period in Europe

early modern period in Europe   Reference library

Linda Charnes, Dennis Kennedy, Richard Andrews, Linda Charnes, Victor Dixon, and Virginia Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
8,389 words

... modern period in Europe ( 1500–1700 ) 1. Introduction; 2. Shared qualities; 3. Italy; 4. England; 5. Spain; 6. France Introduction The early modern period includes overlapping epochs that have been variously called the Renaissance, the Reformation , the Restoration, the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, and the Age of Revolution. Each of these terms designates specific intellectual, artistic, religious, economic, political, and scientific developments in Western culture. Influential cultural historians of the late twentieth century,...

early modern period in Europe

early modern period in Europe  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The early modern period includes overlapping epochs that have been variously called the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Restoration, the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, and the Age of Revolution. ...
25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the Burgerbibliothek in Berne, comprises an important collection of medieval *codices , the St Gall Abbey Library houses significant illustrated Irish MSS from the 8 th century, and the Bibliotheca *Bodmeriana in Cologny near Geneva, founded by *Bodmer , contains a number of outstanding works, including the earliest dated MS ( 1308 ) of Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun’s Roman de la Rose . 2 The early modern period Situated on the borders of Germany and France, on the banks of the Rhine, Basle was ideally placed to become one of Europe’s early...

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the entire modern Greek output by copying monastic MSS; the library was broken up c .1765 . In the early 19 th century, several private Greek libraries were established in Europe and on the Ionian Islands, some of which still survive. 2 1821–1900 Between the Greek declaration of independence in March 1821 and the arrival of the first king of Greece in January 1833 , centuries-old assumptions were overturned in every part of life. Printing presses donated by European philhellenic committees were established in the newly free state at Kalamata,...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

..., with c .400 books in various languages), and his partner, Hieronymus Vietor . In 1505 the brothers Leonhard and Lukas Alantsee established a bookshop in Vienna. The chief places of printing outside Vienna were Innsbruck ( 1547 ), Salzburg ( 1550 ), Graz ( c .1559 ), Brixen ( 1564 ), Linz ( 1615 ), and Klagenfurt ( 1640 ). Yet, compared with Germany, the book trade in Austria was relatively underdeveloped. Austrian readers were principally supplied by booksellers from southern Germany, especially Augsburg. In the early modern period, Austria experienced a...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...booksellers and binders in the early modern period—the extent to which binders had independent business relationships, or were employed by the booksellers—is not well documented. It is increasingly recognized that books were often bound before being put on sale, but there is little evidence to suggest that *edition binding in any deliberate sense was carried out much before the 19 th century. Selling books ready-bound seems to have been more common in Britain than in continental Europe, where the tradition of issuing books in paper wrappers, to be bound...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...in London or Seoul, but while many foreign books are published in Japanese translation, very few Japanese books are translated into other languages, except a handful of literary works into European languages and some academic or political books into Korean or Chinese. Bibliography M. E. Berry , Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (2006) J. Hillier , The Art of the Japanese Book (1988) P. F. Kornicki , The Book in Japan (1998) — ‘Block-Printing in Seventeenth-Century Japan: Evidence from a Newly Discovered Medical Text’, in ...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Ottoman period only four presses operated in Bosnia (three of them in the 19 th century), with the total output of four *newspapers and 50 book titles. For a period of more than 300 years no Bosnian press existed, and all printed materials came from abroad. Even the first periodical, Bosanski prijatelj , was founded in Zagreb in 1850 . However, following an initiative by the Ottoman authorities, the first modern Bosnian printing office was set up in Sarajevo in 1865 . By the end of the 19 th century, two offices had been established in Mostar: the...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...were often copied from, or in the style of, miniatures in MSS. Such miniatures are a notable feature of Persian lithographed books of the 19 th century, where they usually accompany literary works from an earlier period. Although they are broadly in the style of MS miniatures, it has been observed that they belong more to the domain of popular art than to that of the lofty court culture from which illustrated MSS originated. Lithographic miniatures also sometimes feature modern subject matter. A notable example is the depiction, in a work of classical Persian...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...have been included in the ISTC. Practically all 15 th -century editions have been surveyed and included in some form of national, local, or subject catalogue. However, the historical evidence, which is so important for contextualizing each edition and each copy, is far from being systematically recorded: copy-specific information from thousands of incunabula in US and Italian libraries is still lacking. For many other European libraries, what there is remains patchy. No serious analysis of the impact of printing on Renaissance and early modern society can be...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...dating from the 7 th century bc , which were then borrowed for early Latin inscriptions. This early acquisition from Greek accounts for the differences between some modern European letter forms and the modern Greek letters, which are based on a later Greek alphabet known as Ionian that became standard in Greece in 403–2 bc . The eastern alphabetic link is indicated by the fact that in Mesopotamia, by the 5 th century bc , many cuneiform documents carried a notation of their substance in the 22 letters of the Aramaic alphabet, inked onto the tablet with a...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...) The History of Fiction ( 1814 ), which begins with early Greek romance and ends with the novels of the past 100 years in Britain and France. The chapters of the book (‘Origins of Spiritual Romance’, ‘Comic Romance’, ‘Pastoral Romance’, ‘Fairy Tales’, ‘Voyages Imaginaires’, and others) reminded readers of the form's genealogy and variety, implicitly setting modern fiction in a complex and earnest formal context. Dunlop's work is a key indicator of the shifting status of the novel in the Romantic period, and of its search for a distinct genealogy which would...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the beginnings of industrialization. Food riots, which more properly should be termed price riots, appear to have developed from the early modern period, only reaching epidemic proportions in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Primarily an urban phenomenon, they marked the response of consumers to an increasingly market-orientated trade in foodstuffs. That being said, it is notable that the major aspects of food rioting in England and Wales appear to have occurred some time after the food trade became largely deregulated, and when the experience of...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...On the other hand, the European and Chinese printing presses created a new Malay literature in roman script. In the 20 th century, book production was increasingly based on *type . The Dutch colonial government set up its own bureau for popular literature in 1908 , known as Balai Pustaka (Institute of Belles-Lettres), which actively attempted to transform Indonesian writing traditions in accordance with modern Western tastes. This institution had a tremendous influence upon the development of the Malay language used in Indonesia, which came to be...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

....560–636 ). Early Christian books from southern Europe in what are sometimes called the Dark Ages are usually squarish in shape, on *parchment ( *papyrus gradually died out, except in Egypt), and are commonly written in *uncial script or *rustic capitals , generally with enlarged opening initials often in an orange-red colour, and sometimes with pictures in rather sketchy painterly styles not unlike those of ancient Roman frescos. There must have been sites of book production in places like Ravenna, Lyons (a major Roman town in Gaul), and in Rome itself....

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Harry Hendrick aimed to provide a ‘reliable guide to the growing literature’ in Children, Childhood and English Society, 1880–1990 ( 1997 ). Ilana Krausman Ben‐Amos , Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern England ( 1994 ), remains the most substantial account of its subject. Lawrence Stone , The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800 ( 1977 ), was the first attempt to describe the institution's development over a long period of time. It remains the most popular account of its subject, despite being criticized for its highly schematic approach,...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Society in England in the Later Middle Ages (2005). Two outstanding studies of the social and economic relations of the medieval peasantry are Zvi Razi , Life, Marriage and Death in a Medieval Parish: Economy, Society and Demography in Halesowen, 1270–1400 ( 1980 ), and Marjorie Keniston McIntosh , Autonomy and Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200–1500 ( 1986 ). Historians of the early modern period have much richer sources with which to study the farming practices of individual yeomen and husbandmen in all parts of the country. In...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...association with the illustrated book. 8 After 1914 After the expansion of the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, the period beginning in 1914 was, in France as elsewhere, a time of crisis and renewal. World War I, during which restrictions halved paper supplies, was followed by a short boom in publishing during the 1920s . The so-called années folles were well attuned to the development of modern methods of book promotion. One of their early beneficiaries was Pierre Benoît’s novel L’Atlantide , a 1919 bestseller (a term soon adopted by the...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...been small, though it grew considerably in the south‐east as the result of industrialization in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Estimates vary, but the population of Wales was probably around 200 000 in 1500 , and perhaps 400 000 in 1700 . By 1801 it had risen to 587 000, and by 1901 to 2 012 900. In 1976 it was recorded at 2 749 400. During the early modern period the inhabitants of Wales were spread fairly evenly between the various regions, but in the 19th century the south‐east became dominant. In 1801 Glamorgan and Gwent accounted for 20...

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