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dual-process model

Any of a number of theories of social information processing that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s to explain social attitudes (1), stereotypes, person perception, memory, and decision ...

dual-process model

dual-process model n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and easy processing mode based on effort-conserving heuristics , and the second being a slow and more difficult rule-based processing mode based on effort-consuming systematic reasoning. The first type of process is often unconscious and tends to involve automatic processing , whereas the second is invariably conscious and usually involves controlled processing , and in some domains of application the first is affective and the second cognitive. The most influential dual-process theory is the elaboration likelihood model . Also called dual-process theory ....

dual-process model

dual-process model  

Any of a number of theories of social information processing that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s to explain social attitudes (1), stereotypes, person perception, memory, and decision making, although ...
1 John, 2 John, and 3 John

1 John, 2 John, and 3 John   Reference library

Judith Lieu, Judith Lieu, Judith Lieu, and Judith Lieu

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,590 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... the dualism of light v. darkness ( 1 jn 1:5–7 ) is repeated in truth v. lying (as at 1:6, 10 —not ‘truthfulness’ but an absolute) and love v. hating ( 2:9–11 ); this is not just an ethical dualism of opposing moral possibilities but is rooted in the nature of God ( see 3:10–15; 4:7–8 ): in 2:5 ‘love of God’ may be ‘for God’ (objective) or ‘from God’ (subjective). The dualism is also eschatological: darkness belongs to that which is coming to an end, light to the future, which in 1 John's realized eschatology is already dawning. The dualism is...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...primitivism is equated with virtue, it is for Lawrence and Shelley the path of ‘nature’ which forms the basis of a romantic ideal of love. But this equally entails a turning away from the hypocritical dual standard of courtly and chivalric romanticism, with its inflated conception of female virtue. Both Lawrence and Shelley also drew inspiration from utopian models and genres associated with the East. *Hellenism had long been rivalled by traditions of antiquarian scholarship [ see *antiquarianism, 35 ] and travel which located the source of ancient wisdom and...

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Chronicler. Many points are summarized descriptions of the source model, in which details are omitted, whilst other areas are expanded to accommodate some of his favourite theologoumena and opinions, i.e. the Levites, the inclusion of the north, etc. At first sight, his somewhat weaker praise for Josiah may be surprising, since he is one of his favourite kings. But Josiah died on the battlefield and therefore must have committed some previous sin. The Chronicler's description of the process of reforms is more historically reliable than his source. All...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...district, see Jon Stobart , The First Industrial Region: North‐West England, c.1700–60 (2004) , which deals with south Lancashire and Cheshire. The relationship between rural industry and agriculture has proved a fruitful topic for investigation ( see domestic economy ; dual economy ). Such studies have made good use of probate inventories and manorial surveys and have investigated the surviving material culture. The debate on the origins of the Industrial Revolution has drawn extensively on studies of rural industries which grew enormously in the...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...generally against the perceived excesses of evangelical enthusiasm. By the mid-18 th century, literary sentimentalism offered a semblance of common ground between the evangelical and rationalist models, blending their shared emphasis on moral formation. The popularity of Samuel *Richardson ’s Pamela suggested the emergent power of this model, even as it engendered enduring debates about the potentially pernicious effects of novel-reading. The Revolution did not immediately transform Americans’ reading, although it inspired the first indigenous...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. Roughly a century later, the emperor Constantine prepared to do battle at the Milvian Bridge, setting in motion a chain of events that would radically alter the empire's religious landscape. The emerging Christian state, with its dual identity both as the continuation of the Rome of Caesar and Augustus and now also as the patron and promulgator of Christianity, would wrestle with the challenges posed by the existence of communities of Jewish citizens located on three continents and a tradition that, since the...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...vibrations. Man would become progressively more virtuous both by seeking the good and by rooting out bad associations. Such gradual improvement was linked with the inauguration of the millennium, evidence for which Hartley found in Revelation. Progress thus occurred by a dual process of purification and improved conduct. The spread of reason and knowledge would eventually defeat evil in the world and all would share in the benefits. Hartley's ideas were not always accepted in detail, but they are indicative of the mood of late-eighteenth-century English...

The Four Gospels in Synopsis

The Four Gospels in Synopsis   Reference library

Henry Wansbrough

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,113 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...present (which often disappears in translation, and is often ‘corrected’ by Matthew and Luke). On a more stylistic level Markan duality has been thoroughly documented: Mark's thought often proceeds by two steps, the second frequently defining and focusing the first, ‘That evening, at sundown’ ( 1:32 ), ‘in the morning, a great while before day’ ( 1:35 ), ‘the leprosy left him and he was made clean’ ( 1:42 ). This duality shows also in the frequent double questions (‘Do you not yet perceive or understand?, 8:17 ) and double commands (‘Peace! Be still!’,...

Qur'an and Woman

Qur'an and Woman   Reference library

Amina Wadud-Muhsin

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,749 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Methodology: A Hermeneutical Model A hermeneutical model is concerned with three aspects of the text, in order to support its conclusions: (1) the context in which the text was written (in the case of the Qur'an, in which it was revealed); (2) the grammatical composition of the text (how it says what...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the others are sons of night and sons of darkness who do not belong to light or day. Such a powerful dualism presents very starkly the nature of the opposed identities of in-group and out-group, the first highly positive and the second very negative indeed. Here we have a good example of the stereotypical group-categorization characteristic of the way one group generates a favourable social identity for itself. vv. 6–7 , Paul persists with his continuing process of group differentiation in a related area of imagery by exhorting them not to sleep like the others...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...people “who by virtue of their peculiarity have special access to certain achievements considered to be ‘cultural values,’” and, as a result, represent “the leadership of a ‘culture community.’” 18 Intellectuals in this way have a dual role. On the one hand, the “capacity criticism, for rejection of the status quo is not simply a matter of preference by some critical intellectuals” but is “built into the very nature of the occupational roles.” 19 On the other...

Islam and Humanism

Islam and Humanism   Reference library

Mamadiou Dia

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...intentions which the materialist language hardly seizes on for their communicative value, the propulsive force necessary for any modern theology. In insisting on the complex totality of being , on participation as a condition of existence, in refusing the Aristotelian dualism for a dialectic of unity that “reestablishes in its continuity the living tissue that an imprudent analysis has disjoined (Gabriel Marcel [French philosopher, 1889–1973]), the contemporary existential formulas open the path to a fertile meditation on ontological mystery and give...

The Old Testament

The Old Testament   Reference library

John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,443 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
15

...suspicions and was forced eventually to desert to the Philistines. Confined to the area of southern Judah, David adopted the dual strategy of forging diplomatic links with the villagers of Judah while raiding the Amalekites in the Negev. After Saul had been defeated by the Philistines, David became king of Judah and then of Israel, before defeating the Philistines and setting up his capital in Jerusalem ( 2 Sam. 5 ). These processes can best be understood if we set them in the context of a world where borders between states were not lines drawn on maps, and...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

Richard Bauckham and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,754 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...its seven seals have been opened ( 8:1 ), has not yet been revealed. The scroll in ch. 10 is already open ( v. 2 ): its contents can be known only when it has been ingested by John ( 10:8–11 ). The process of transmission—from God to Christ ( 5:7 ) and from the angel to John ( 10:8–10 )—corresponds to that described in 1:1 . Moreover, John's use of an OT model for his account of the scroll ( Ezek 2:8–3:3 ) begins in 5:1 ( cf. Ezek 2:9–10 ) and continues in 10:8–10 ( cf. Ezek 3:1–3 ). The reason most commentators have not regarded the scroll of ch. 10 ...

2 Esdras

2 Esdras   Reference library

Peter Hayman and Peter Hayman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,631 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and saw it as one long disaster leading nowhere and Uriel does not disagree with this analysis. The present age is evil, full of pain and sorrow, so must be eliminated before God's salvation can come, as must the ‘evil heart’; the words ‘place’ and ‘field’ in v. 29 have this dual reference. The same general atmosphere pervades the NT and early Christianity; the temptation story presupposes that the devil is in charge of this world, not God ( Mt 5:8–9 ), and Paul goes so far as to describe the devil as ‘the god of this world’ ( 2 Cor 4:4 ). Christianity...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Christoph Bultmann and Christoph Bultmann

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,352 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...weapons are mentioned in many oracles of doom, cf. e.g. Nah 3; Hab 3 . The poet envisages the total extinction of the enemy. Within the OT as a whole, this image of vengeance finds its counterpart in the vision of universal peace as in Isa 2:2–4 . That vision breaks up the dualism of ‘compassion’ and ‘vengeance’ which underlies any apocalyptic concept of ‘salvation’ and ‘doom’. ( 32:43 ) As in v. 8 , MT has been revised in order to avoid all possible reminiscences of polytheism. Where MT reads ‘praise, O nations, his people’, a MS from Qumran reads...

The Pastoral Epistles

The Pastoral Epistles   Reference library

Clare Drury and Clare Drury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,198 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mercy’ because he acted out of ignorance. The sharp contrast between the persecutor and the believer is shown to be an intentional part of God's plan so that Paul might be an example for others, to demonstrate above all the perfect patience of Jesus Christ. So the tale serves a dual purpose; Paul is a typical example of a convert, but his special case gives him a special position as an apostle as the next few verses show. Paul himself talks of his former life in 1 Cor 15:9 and Phil 3:4–8 , to make a similar point, but here the language is stronger and less...

2 Corinthians

2 Corinthians   Reference library

Margaret MacDonald and Margaret MacDonald

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... have been noted. The stringing together of a series of citations from Scripture which are not found elsewhere in Paul's letters (the allusions in 6:16–18 include Lev 26:12; Isa 52:11; Ezek 20:34; 2 Sam 7:14 ) has invited discussion. The vocabulary and ideas, especially the dualism, have been judged to be closer to the Qumran community than to Paul. Thus a great deal of doubt has been raised about the authenticity of these verses. There have been theories ranging from an ‘anti-Pauline fragment’ ( Betz 1973 : 88–108 ) to a ‘Pauline interpolation of...

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