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dominant culture

Whereas traditional societies can be characterized by a high consistency of cultural traits and customs, modern societies are often a conglomeration of different, often competing, cultures ...

dominant culture

dominant culture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
90 words

... culture Whereas traditional societies can be characterized by a high consistency of cultural traits and customs , modern societies are often a conglomeration of different, often competing, cultures and subcultures . In such a situation of diversity, a dominant culture is one whose values, language, and ways of behaving are imposed on a subordinate culture or cultures through economic or political power. This may be achieved through legal or political suppression of other sets of values and patterns of behaviour, or by monopolizing the media of...

dominant culture

dominant culture  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Whereas traditional societies can be characterized by a high consistency of cultural traits and customs, modern societies are often a conglomeration of different, often competing, cultures and ...
Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to deploy supernatural incidents and characters, or to introduce ballads, scholarly materials, and elaborate framing narratives, all hinting at a process of transmission over time or across cultures. The actual ascendancy of the historical manner in the half-century 1780–1830 sits oddly with some later critical suppositions—that the personal *lyric is the dominant Romantic form, or that the period belongs to the writer of *genius , supremely individualistic and self-generating. The 1780s and 1790s saw the familiar personal lyric poem overwhelmed in the...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

Leslie Howsam

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,084 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the material culture of print in a rapidly...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Dissent were aged if not already dead. The loss of people of such energy, talent, and eminence critically weakened the culture of enquiry whose earlier vibrancy gave their Enlightenment its character: henceforth what had been creative intellectual tensions in the decades before the French Revolution became impossible strains. In retrospect, Rational Dissent had balanced irreconcilables. Although never a unitary movement, its dominant trend had been represented by Price and Priestley . The explosion of loyalist rage against these two after 1790 ...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Coleridge thought they could enlist their new ways of thinking about poetry in the service of culture, which is why Arnold turned to them, rather than to the younger Romantics, for his immediate touchstones. From the point of view of Romantic poetry itself, however, the theme of failure is simply a radical style for displaying the dynamic character of imaginative (as opposed to cultured) writing. The distinction between the two—between poetry and culture—is fundamental to any Romantic art, as Blake argued in his annotations on Boyd's Dante: the grandest...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...importantly, the new exhibition culture only intermittently allowed women painters into its ambits, and then only on specific terms. While artists like Maria Cosway ( 1759–1838 ), Mary Moser ( d. 1819 ), and Angelica *Kauffman did exhibit at the Royal Academy and elsewhere, and frequently showed history paintings as part of their contributions, their success in the genre largely depended on producing pictures that focused on allegorized female protagonists, and on the sentimental, private virtues that contemporary culture defined as particularly feminine...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the religious orders in the respective colonies, and even literary works by authors such as Bernardo de Balbuena , the Mexican nun Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, and the Peruvian Juan de Espinosa Medrano (‘El Lunarejo’). The books imported from Spain were largely literary, with the dominant romances giving way to *plays . Most of the books of this period, given their scarcity, high cost, and the low level of the general population’s literacy, ended up in the libraries of the universities of Mexico City, Lima, and Santo Domingo, in convents, or in the private...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in its own way, the peculiar form of historical self-consciousness that characterizes contemporary public culture. Each addresses the point Mill emphasizes as novel about the age (an age that, in his account, distinguishes itself by the use of the phrase ‘the spirit of the age’): ‘The idea of comparing one's own age with former ages, or with our notion of those which are yet to come, had occurred to philosophers; but it never before was itself the dominant idea of any age.’ In order to comprehend what it means for this ‘idea’ to dominate, one must understand...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... Specimens of a Dialect of the Aborigines of New South Wales ); and scripture texts and *primers for Aboriginals on mission stations. Penny van Toorn has pointed out that categorizing Aboriginal culture as ‘oral’ and European as ‘literate’ is oversimplistic, privileging European concepts of what writing is and does over other sign systems. Aboriginal culture inscribed meanings on message-sticks, as well as on rocks, bark, human bodies, clothing, and ritual objects. The first monograph on an Aboriginal artist. The Bread and Cheese Club’s leading spirit...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of which the East Lothian Fourth Statistical Account Society's seven‐volume project has been the most ambitious (6 vols to date, 2003–  ). The ethnological impulse remains dominant to this day. The School of Scottish Studies, now the Department of Celtic and Scottish Studies, Edinburgh University, was founded in 1951 , and has pursued the study of folk customs and music, material culture, social organization, and literature. It has also made an impressive collection of †place‐names and, after its amalgamation with the Linguistic Survey of Scotland, produced...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

Brian Cummings

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,977 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of an iron pen in lead (with wonderful anachronism, but in the same spirit of applying new media to God’s work, the Authorized Version translated this as ‘printed in a book’, Job 19:23). At other times God writes in wax. But most of all, God discloses Himself in a scroll, the dominant written technology of the ancient world. God bears witness to His purposes in a scroll (Isa. 8:1). At the end of time, ‘the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll’ (Isa. 34:4). These Hebraic metaphors carried over into the Greek New Testament. In the vision of the end of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of Authorship in America , ed. M. J. Bruccoli (1968) J. D. Cornelius , ‘ When I Can Read My Title Clear ’ (1991) L. A. Coser et al ., Books: The Culture and Commerce of Publishing (1982) P. Dain , ‘The Great Libraries’, in HBA 4 J. P. Danky and W. A. Wiegand , eds., Print Culture in a Diverse America (1998) C. N. Davidson , ed., Reading in America (1989) K. C. Davis , Two-Bit Culture (1984) DLB 46, 49 J. Eddy , Bookwomen (2006) J. Epstein , Book Business (2001) S. Fink and S. S. Williams , eds., Reciprocal Influences (1999) J....

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...History of the Book in Japan P. F. Kornicki 1 Scribal culture 2 Print up to 1600 3 Print 1600–1868 4 Print since 1868 1 Scribal culture Japan first became acquainted with both writing and the book from China, at some time in the first half of the first millennium ad . There can be no doubt that Chinese, as the language of Buddhism in East Asia, as the language of the intellectual tradition that is now termed Confucianism, and as the language of scholarly discourse in East Asia, was central to book production in Japan from its beginnings right up to...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

Charlotte Appel and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,240 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

.... Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been used for inscriptions on metal, stone, and wood...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of new buildings for government, industry, commerce, culture, religion, and leisure were constructed across the country. In design terms, architects stuck largely to conservative habits for large public buildings, but at the professional and theoretical levels they reacted with great innovation to economic, political, and social developments usually, however, beyond their full comprehension and control. Indeed, so destabilizing were the effects upon architecture of commercialization, war, and market culture that by the mid-1830s a consensus had formed that the...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ways to the narrative of national integration and progress that was rehearsed, more or less confidently, in the period's historical romances and national tales. Like these tales, the narrative of novelistic tradition tells of the defeat of an older, wilder, superstitious culture, the culture of romance; and in the telling makes sure of its return. Butler, M. , Jane Austen and the War of Ideas (1975), with a new introduction, Oxford, 1987; Cottom, D. , The Civilized Imagination: A Study of Ann Radcliffe, Jane Austen, and Sir Walter Scott , Cambridge,...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

Craig Kallendorf

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...through the medieval *codex to the *scrolls of ancient Greece and Rome, it is important to remember that these latter civilizations arose after, and alongside, a number of other ancient cultures that also had writing. Although it is likely that writing arose independently in the Near East, China, and Central America, Greece and Rome interacted regularly with the cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Germanic tribes, and Israel, so that a full consideration of the book in the ancient world must take into account all of these areas and their interrelationships....

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

J. S. Edgren

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,024 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...C. Brokaw , Commerce in Culture (2007) — and K. Chow , eds., Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China (2005) T. Carter , The Invention of Printing in China and Its Spread Westward (1925; rev. edn. 1955) L. Chia , Printing for Profit (2002) K. Chow , Publishing, Culture, and Power in Early Modern China (2004) J.-P. Drège , Les Bibliothèques en Chine au temps des manuscrits (1991) J. S. Edgren , ‘The fengmianye (Cover Page) as a Source for Chinese Publishing History’, in Studies of Publishing Culture in East Asia , ed. A. Isobe ...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...even more over this century. The social range of the students narrowed markedly during the same period. Oxford matriculants registered as ‘poor’ fell from 27 per cent to 1 per cent, with students from professional families joining those of the older landed ranks to become the dominant element. Numbers at both universities were to return to their former heights by the end of the Napoleonic *wars [2] . The growing prosperity and ambition of the middle class during the Industrial Revolution may have been a factor in these increased enrolments, although the...

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