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distillation

The process of boiling a liquid and condensing and collecting the vapour. The liquid collected is the distillate. It is used to purify liquids and to separate liquid mixtures (see ...

distillation

distillation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
43 words

... The process of boiling a liquid and condensing and collecting the vapour. The liquid collected is the distillate . It is used to purify liquids and to separate liquid mixtures ( see fractional distillation ; steam distillation ). See also destructive distillation ; extractive distillation...

distillation

distillation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... A process of separating, concentrating, or purifying a liquid by condensing the boiling...

distillation

distillation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Spirits and Cocktails

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...distillation is the process by which the ethanol in a fermented substance is extracted and concentrated through successive heating and cooling. See also distillation, process ; and ethanol...

distillation

distillation   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
55 words

... the act or process of evaporating a liquid by boiling so that its components, which are vaporized at different temperatures or at different rates, can be separated and condensed back to a liquid (or solid). It is used to purify one liquid from a mixture of liquids or from (dissolved) solids. See fractional distillation...

distillation

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...distillation The separation of liquids by virtue of their difference in boiling points. The process consists of boiling the liquid mixture and condensing and collecting the vapour. It is used to purify liquids and to separate liquid mixtures into its constituent components. It is the most widely used method for the separation of miscible liquids and takes place in a distillation column . ...

distillation

distillation   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
74 words

... Extraction of a liquid by boiling a solution in which it is contained and cooling the vapour so that it condenses and can be collected. Distillation is used to separate liquids in solution, or liquid solvents from dissolved solids, to yield drinking water from sea water, or to produce alcoholic spirit. Fractional distillation, which uses a vertical column for condensation, is used in oil refining to separate the various fractions of crude...

distillation

distillation   Reference library

Ralph Hancock

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... separating a liquid from a mixture by boiling it off and condensing the vapour. The best-known use of the technique is to make alcoholic drinks such as brandy; but there are other, food-related, uses; flavourings such as rosewater ( see roses ) and orange flower water are prepared by a type of distillation. Distillation can also be used to produce drinking water from sea water, a process described by Aristotle in the 4th century bc . At that time the Egyptians were already distilling turpentine from pine resin, and probably also making small...

distillation

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... A process that is used to separate the components of a liquid mixture, by boiling the liquid and then condensing the vapour (e.g. by boiling and condensing alcohol to produce a liquor). It is used to purify water by removing inorganic contaminants, and in desalination to remove salt from...

Distillation

Distillation   Reference library

Bob Pastorio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the sixth century BCE. These peoples used distillation primarily for alchemy and transmutation of various substances. Arabs developed the technology that shaped European distillation until the Middle Ages. The basic piece of equipment for distillation was the alembic. Until the Middle Ages, distillation was used for alchemical and medical purposes. Europeans began to distill alcohol in larger quantities for its health-giving properties. The name “water of life” appears in almost all European languages; related terms include aqua vitae, aquavit, eau-de-vie, and ...

distillation

distillation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
718 words

... . According to Nicolas Lemery , distillation was “an operation for separating and collecting, via an appropriate degree of heat, the fluid and volatile principles of bodies.” Believing that fire was the most powerful agent of material change, but that unchecked fire only destroyed the bodies whose principles they sought to separate, chemists viewed and employed distillation procedures as a carefully controlled means to apply fire to achieve their ends. Distillation methods go back to antiquity, but no artifacts have survived to reveal the forms of...

distillation

distillation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... , the separation of the constituents of a liquid mixture by partial vaporization of the mixture and the separate recovery of the vapour and the residue. When applied to wine (or any other fermented liquid), the result is a considerably stronger alcoholic liquid: brandy in the case of wine and other fermented fruit juices; calvados in the case of certain apples from northern France; and whisky in the case of fermented...

flash distillation

flash distillation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...distillation A distillation process used to desalinate (remove salt from)...

double distillation

double distillation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Spirits and Cocktails

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...double distillation is a common spirits distillation process incorporating two runs through a still (usually a pot still), with the second yielding a distillate that has a significantly higher concentration of ethanol than the first. See also distillate ; distillation, process ; and ethanol...

reactive distillation

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...reactive distillation A distillation process that involves a chemical reaction taking place within the distillation column . As with conventional distillation, the reactants and the products are separated by virtue of differing boiling points and are therefore dependent on phase equilibria properties as well as hydraulic behaviour. Reactive distillation can also involve the presence of a catalyst and is known as catalytic distillation . Reactive distillation is used for esterification and etherification amongst other processes where the reaction takes...

vacuum distillation

vacuum distillation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
29 words

...distillation Distillation under reduced pressure. The depression in the boiling point of the substance distilled means that the temperature is lower, which may prevent the substance from...

vacuum distillation

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...vacuum distillation A distillation process that operates at a reduced pressure. The effect of the low pressure is to reduce the boiling point temperature of the mixture being separated. This is useful where the materials may be heat-labile, such as the separation of volatiles from fruit juices, or prevent the decomposition or cracking of materials being distilled in crude oil distillation. In the vacuum distillation of petroleum fractions, residues may be used as the feedstock for cracking other products, or may be blended to produce fuel oil or...

steam distillation

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...steam distillation The separation of immiscible organic liquids by distillation using steam. It involves the injection of live steam into the bottom of the distillation column and into the heated mixture for separation. The steam reduces the partial pressure of the mixture and reduces the temperature required for vaporization. When distilled, the components operate independently of one another, with each being in equilibrium with its own vapour. Steam distillation is used in the primary separation of crude distillation in a fractionation column. ...

binary distillation

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...binary distillation The separation of two components by the process of distillation. The ease of separation is based on the difference between the boiling points of the two components. Simple graphical techniques such as McCabe–Thiele and Ponchon–Savarit can be used to illustrate the separation for continuous binary distillation processes. ...

differential distillation

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...differential distillation A batch distillation process used to separate components in a liquid mixture that does not involve reflux. As the charge is boiled, the first distillate is richest in the more volatile component. As the distillation proceeds, the vaporized product becomes leaner. The distillate can therefore be collected into fractions or cuts of differing purities. See whisky . ...

extractive distillation

extractive distillation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
44 words

...distillation A distillation technique in which a solvent is added to the mixture in order to separate two closely boiling components. The added solvent is usually nonvolatile and is selected for its ability to have different effects on the volatilities of the...

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