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direction line

Line beneath the text at the foot of a page, containing the catchword and, where relevant, a signature and/or press figure.

direction line

direction line   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
23 words

... line Line beneath the text at the foot of a page, containing the *catchword and, where relevant, a *signature and/or *press figure...

direction line

direction line  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Line beneath the text at the foot of a page, containing the catchword and, where relevant, a signature and/or press figure.
Directional Words

Directional Words   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
548 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Currents §, at 2. The one useful distinctive sense that forms such as southward and southerly convey is that the movement is more or less in the direction indicated—but not in a straight line. E.g.: “Many of the bees escaped from his lab and have moved steadily northward ever since.” “Bee Not Afraid?” Fresno Bee , 22 Sept. 1994 , at B6. D. An Infrequent Error: ✳northernly for northerly , etc. Occasionally writers err by making the directional words ending in -erly into words ending in -ernly —e.g.: • “The districts of Downstate Democratic...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In 1765 A General Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences said that natural philosophy ‘considers the powers and properties of natural bodies, and their mutual actions on one another’. This was repeated in a four-line entry in the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica , published in three volumes between 1768 and 1771 . Another one-line entry on ‘Physics’ listed it as ‘a denomination sometimes given to natural philosophy’. The editors also made the provinces of both ‘Philosophy’ and ‘Moral Philosophy’ intersect with the domain of natural...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the provinces, charity expressed more than one social vision and was an important focus for middle-class male sociability, political aspiration, and influence; it offered women formal opportunities to exercise patronage and assert their capabilities, albeit usually under the direction of men. The number and variety of charities founded suggest the vigour and diversification of philanthropy in the period. Thomas Barnard's Society for Bettering the Condition and Improving the Comforts of the Poor (established in 1795 ) publicized various experiments in relief,...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...been primarily associated with Britain's role as the first industrial nation. Indeed, in so far as a link might be posited with one of the most obvious symptoms of economic development, the growth of the towns, it might be argued that the tendencies pulled in the opposite direction. Death rates were customarily higher in the growing towns and cities than in the countryside. Indeed, urban populations were only able to grow through a net influx of population from the countryside. On this reading, it was the parts of the country least affected by economic...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...through the clear hierarchy of labour indicated in the composition of the print. Between the creation of the Royal Academy of Art and the foundation of a National Gallery in London there are significant developments in the material conditions of art viewing that affect the direction of exhibition and the definition of the spectator. The period is fascinating for the scale and concentration of these changes as well as for the emergence of many aspects of institutional organization and art display that are now perceived as conventional. The Royal Academy...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it.’ Such an opinion seemingly ignored the successful efforts that had been made over the preceding half-century to apply the principles of design to manufactures, and of taste to consumption. Cockerell maintained that taste was more under the control of fashion than the direction of principle. Other witnesses acknowledged the efforts of Wedgwood, Boulton, Mrs Coade, and Rundells, but asserted that their influence was necessarily limited. The works of Flaxman and Hope, and the publications on Sir William Hamilton's vases, were shut up in private...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,014 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for example, the minute books of Cork Union are contained in 133 volumes. A valuation of individual tenements, under the direction of Richard Griffith, Commissioner of Valuation, was made between 1844 and 1865 to form a basis for local taxation. See Tony McCarthy , The Irish Roots Guide (2nd edn, 1997) , ch. 5. Outdoor relief was authorized by the Poor Law Amendment Act 1847 , which attempted to bring Ireland more in line with English practice. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/partnerprojects/workhouse/default.htm The National Archives Poor Law...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,326 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...been used solely for cereals was rotated between arable and pasture, with the elimination of the fallow. During the second half of the 17th century clovers were commonly used. Rising prices for livestock products as the national population increased encouraged farmers in this direction. A great deal is also now known about landlords and estates, the size of holdings, the various methods of tenure, dual occupations, farmhouses, different field systems, and the enclosure of fields and commons . Much enclosure took place in the 16th and 17th centuries. In...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of reciprocity that governed relations between patricians and plebs fractured, and with it some of the viability of the appeal to custom as a language of persuasion and an emollient of relations between these social groups. Many developments were already leading in this direction: agrarian capitalists were organizing their production of crops for free movement and profitable sale in the market-place, statute law was enshrining absolute powers of ownership rather than differential use rights to property, and employers were imposing new work disciplines...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...capitals that were needed only occasionally. The compositor picked up letter after letter and placed them one at a time in the stick, putting spaces between words, and working from left to right, reading the line in the stick to check that it was correct. To *justify or fill each line, the spaces were added or reduced between words until the line filled the stick firmly. The lines were transferred from the stick to a *galley , an open tray, until there were enough for a page. The page of type was tied up with thin cord and placed with other pages on a...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...If no coating is present, the fibres and filler materials should be visible as shiny filamentous or particulate constituents of the surface. For paper made on a fast machine, especially of Fourdrinier design, the fibres will tend to align in the direction of travel on the forming wire; this allows the grain direction to be assessed. Slower machines, such as cylinder moulds, show less obvious orientation, and hand-made paper shows little or none. For uncoated papers, the degree of gloss shows whether the surfaces have been calendered, or for older papers,...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...other reasons. First, books and reading habits—the result of a higher literacy rate, which by 1700 averaged 50 per cent—became more general. This applied to men more than to women, to cities more than to the countryside, and to the areas north of a line going from Saint-Malo to Geneva (known as the ‘Maggiolo line’ after the author of a survey in the late 1870s ) more than to western, southwestern, and southern France. Beyond the prestigious collections formed by de *Thou , *Mazarin , *Brienne , *Colbert , and the *Lamoignons , private libraries, even of...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

..., and though in effect he bankrupted himself, he completed the printing of the two-volume Latin Bible now known as the *Gutenberg Bible or the 42-line Bible (from the number of lines of text on the page) by August 1456 at the latest. Printing soon spread to other towns, in Germany and beyond. From Mainz it was introduced to Bamberg, an important bishopric, c .1459 ; here Heinrich Keffer completed the 36-line Bible by 1461 . Initially, the principal centres were generally commercial cities where capital, suitable texts, and readers could be found. At...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a newspaper seller and a pedlar whose tray, filled with ‘knicknackatories’, probably contained a selection of chapbooks. It is this range of generally disposable material that provides the focus of what follows. Ballads, chapbooks, almanacs, and newspapers were issued under the direction of core members of the book trade working within the orbit of the *Stationers’ Company . The trade had a presence in the street through the booths and stalls long established in London, while at least some of the hawkers were full or part-time employees of booksellers. Despite...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and ornamented in an entirely different way. These would both, in turn, be quite unlike a volume of classical poetry, probably in a tall narrow format with the first letters of each line slightly separated to the left of the *text block , or a heavy lectern bible, in two columns marked for public reading, or a genealogical *chronicle , strung together like washing on a line, or a pocket-sized book of friars’ sermons in tiny abbreviated script, and yet all might have been made at the same period, perhaps even by the same scribe. The hierarchy of MSS, like...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... *rubricated and/or illuminated. In the one edition subjected to such an inquiry, the 1478 folio Roman Breviary, 24 of the 45 known copies are vellum and almost all exhibit hand-added decoration of the first order (Armstrong). Publishing in the long term went in the opposite direction, as large, high-quality, hand-embellished, polychrome books on parchment (which approximated MSS) were replaced by small, sometimes shoddily printed, monochrome books on paper. Nonetheless, the luxury, high-cost product filled something more than a niche market; holding its own...

directed line

directed line  

A straight line with a specified direction along the line. The specified direction may be called the positive direction and the opposite the negative direction. It may be convenient to distinguish ...
direction ratios

direction ratios  

Suppose that a direction has direction cosines cos α, cos β, cos γ. Any triple of numbers l, m, n, not all zero, such that l=k cos α, m=k cos β, n=k cos γ, are called direction ratios of the given ...

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