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direct rule

(Northern Ireland 1972–98). On 24 March 1972, after Brian Faulkner's administration had refused to agree that control of security should be transferred to London, the Conservative ...

direct rule

direct rule   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...direct rule A form of government in which top-down political control is established through the creation of a far-reaching administrative infrastructure. The term is typically used to refer to colonial regimes that invested more heavily in developing a coercive apparatus and employed Africans in the colonial bureaucracy. Direct rule is typically contrasted with indirect rule —a system of government that relied on the co-optation of African intermediaries and social structures to maintain order and stability as a result of limited manpower and resources....

direct rule

direct rule   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
197 words

... rule (Northern Ireland 1972–98 ). On 24 March 1972 , after Brian Faulkner 's administration had refused to agree that control of security should be transferred to London, the Conservative government of Edward Heath announced the suspension of the system of devolved government in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland was now governed directly from Westminster. Cabinet responsibility was transferred from the home secretary to a newly created cabinet post of secretary of state for Northern Ireland. A team of junior government ministers was established to take...

Direct Rule

Direct Rule   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... Rule . The direct government of Northern Ireland from Westminster, introduced in 1972 , the year of Bloody Sunday , following the outbreak of the Troubles four years earlier. Direct rule was abandoned in December 1999 as an outcome of discussions proceeding from the signing of the Good Friday Agreement and the setting up of the Northern Ireland Assembly. It was reimposed in February 2000 amid bitter recriminations between Sinn Féin and the British authorities over the issue of the Decommissioning of paramilitary weapons. The Assembly...

direct rule

direct rule n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
9 words
direct rule

direct rule noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
34 words
direct rule

direct rule noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
40 words
direct rule

direct rule  

(Northern Ireland 1972–98). On 24 March 1972, after Brian Faulkner's administration had refused to agree that control of security should be transferred to London, the Conservative government of ...
Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...found in the decades of the Napoleonic wars (it being a rule of history that external emergencies lead to extensions in government powers and competences). It is no coincidence that government was more or less simultaneously seeking information on the state of agriculture through crop returns and holding the first decennial census in 1801 . After this time, central government came to require ever more detailed information about circumstances in the counties, sometimes gathered by circulars directed to the local authorities and sometimes by a commission or...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by imperial rule was also influenced by the local traditions of the colonies, whether (as in India) of the indigenous inhabitants or (as in most of the territories annexed during the French wars) of the former colonial powers which the British had superseded by force of arms. Even the phrase ‘the British Empire’ exaggerates the uniformity and cohesion of the rag-bag collection of territories which had fallen into British hands as the result of the vagaries of military or commercial success. Since, for much of our period, those directing the British state...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the nursery. For not dissimilar reasons, writings on correctness had long been directed at gentlewomen, who were seen as particularly liable to introduce imperfections. R. B. *Sheridan 's comic character Mrs Malaprop , with her tendency to confuse similar-sounding words, is one of many literary examples from the eighteenth century of this kind of perception. The very first English dictionaries, published at the beginning of the previous century, had frequently been directed at young ladies in an attempt to regulate such errors. The attempt was to continue...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...And as the European perspective of Montesquieu 's De l'Esprit des Lois ( 1748 ) implied, a variegated but widespread consciousness of the supposed advantages of ‘the rule of law’ was the clearest feature of that patriotic superiority complex which distinguished the English in their own eyes and among foreigners around mid-century, when Blackstone first conceived his Commentaries . The rule of law was a uniquely inclusive and participatory ideal in English society. Indeed, the concept and practical administration of law had never before been invested with so...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is always more or less directed by the will.’ So all intellectual operations—for example, reasoning and judging, hearing, and seeing—display some form of activity, for we can have control of our thoughts and direct our attention as we wish. Conversely, an act of will must incorporate an intellectual operation, since the object of the will ‘must be apprehended or conceived in the understanding’. Reid concludes that ‘in most, if not all operations of the mind, both faculties concur’. To suppose that there can be direct warfare between the two faculties,...

Tracing a Family Tree: Getting Started

Tracing a Family Tree: Getting Started   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,642 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...parish registers began and wills became more common among ordinary people. Not many of us can get back into the Middle Ages by proving a direct line step by step, but it is often possible to show that a distinctive surname was coined in a particular locality in the 13th or 14th century and that it remained thereabouts until the 16th or 17th century, when you can begin to prove descent. Of course, many people claim direct descent from someone recorded in Domesday Book or even earlier, but they have never gone to the trouble of proving it. Every self‐respecting...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Established Church’ as a direct counter to the Lancaster faction's promotional organization, which became known as the ‘British and Foreign School Society’. There are grounds for arguing, however, that the rivalry of these two bodies, and of the forces they represented, did as much to impede as to aid the spread of education through the British nation at large. It was a deadlock between these forces that frustrated the attempt by Brougham, following his parliamentary enquiry into schools, to legislate for a measure of direct state participation in the...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of prospective settlement, while the north-west passage, the goal of his third voyage, would have enabled more direct access to Asian trade. The importance of these commercial aims was obscured to some degree by the fact that Cook's findings in both cases were negative, though the settlement of Australia followed from the charting of the east coast on the first voyage, and exploration in other regions, such as West Africa, was more obviously directed toward the opening up of trade routes [ see *empire, 5 ]. The Earl of Sandwich, first Lord of the Admiralty, in...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to be the religious and moral guides and leaders of men, to whom they were in every other way subordinate. Similarly, they were to raise the moral and religious tone of their family and household, and through this of the wider social world—a world to which they were denied direct access, at least in terms of political rights. While new emphasis was being placed on the importance of women as the anchors of both domestic and public life, it is also necessary to look at the problems posed for women by the extensive redefinition of manliness and masculinity...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the long rule of the Chosŏn house. After the 1403 *fount , the next casting was in 1420 , the kyŏngja year. Again, the dynastic annals provide a detailed account of royal involvement, in the person of the fourth king, Sejong (r. 1418–50 ): To print books, type used to be placed on copper plates, molten beeswax would be poured on the plates to solidify the type alignments and thereafter a print was made. This required an excessive amount of beeswax and allowed printing of only a few sheets a day. Whereupon His Majesty personally directed the work and...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...writing and dating systems in mainland Southeast Asia is connected with the spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity in this area. The first writing system was chũ’ nho’ , Classical Chinese, which was the official writing system when Vietnam was under direct Chinese rule ( 111 bc – ad 938 ). In the 13 th century, chũ’ nôm , a system based on chṹ nho , was developed to write the Vietnamese language. It consisted of orthodox Chinese characters supplemented by a set of new characters specifically created to write Vietnamese words. The...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for monastic life. There are four parts to the Sutta-vibhanga . The initial part is a narrative or narratives that present the actual human circumstances for a particular rule. Secondly, there is the actual rule. Then, there is a commentary on each term of the rule. It concludes with a narrative indicative of any mitigating circumstances, which exemplify exceptions to the rule, and may also relate any changes that could be made regarding punishments. This last aspect suggests the introduction of some latitude into the monastic code. Flexibility is also...

Cymbeline, King of Britain

Cymbeline, King of Britain   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...emerging from uncertain national rule and battle, could not but move the more for the spectre of the civil wars tearing the country apart. Michael Dobson , rev. Will Sharpe On the screen: A 45-minute TV version ( 1937 ) was one of the earliest British TV Shakespeare transmissions. Other TV productions include one from the USA ( 1981 ), one from Belgium ( 1981 ), and Elijah Moshinsky ’s BBC TV production ( 1982 ) with Helen Mirren as Imogen, generally regarded as one of the best of the BBC series. Michael Almereyda directed the first major studio version (...

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