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dignified/efficient

Walter Bagehot, in The English Constitution, published in 1867, asserted that a constitution needed two parts, ‘one to excite and preserve the reverence of the population’ and the other to ...

dignified/efficient

dignified/efficient  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Walter Bagehot, in The English Constitution, published in 1867, asserted that a constitution needed two parts, ‘one to excite and preserve the reverence of the population’ and the other to ‘employ ...
Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the golden mean and bestowed its moral gloss elsewhere. Even when class was being described in terms of function in economic life, it was the moral value of each class contribution that was being underlined. Middle-class activists were keen on binary oppositions which dignified their social contribution, as in the industrious versus the idle classes, the productive classes versus the parasites, the useful classes versus the useless, and they mobilized all these juxtapositions in the reform campaign. Classical political economists like David *Ricardo ...

Bagehot, Walter

Bagehot, Walter (1826–77)   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
90 words

...Walter ( 1826–77 ) English journalist ; editor of The Economist 1861–77 . Best known for The English Constitution ( 1867 ), in which he distinguished between the ‘dignified’ and the ‘efficient’ parts of the constitution. The monarchy and other dignified parts of the constitution existed to give popular legitimacy to the inconspicuous cabinet—the ‘buckle’ which fastened the legislature to the executive. Bagehot wished to distinguish the ‘living reality’ of the constitution, in contrast to its ‘paper description’—an aim which has made him an...

dignified

dignified   Quick reference

Lincoln Allison

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
142 words

... / efficient Walter Bagehot , in The English Constitution , published in 1867 , asserted that a constitution needed two parts, ‘one to excite and preserve the reverence of the population’ and the other to ‘employ that homage in the work of government’. The first he called ‘dignified’ and the second ‘efficient’. The monarch was the prime example of dignity in this sense and the cabinet of efficiency. Thus Queen Victoria, while lacking executive power, had an important constitutional role. The distinction has survived and has been often cited in the...

Bagehot, Walter

Bagehot, Walter (1826–77)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
240 words

...understandable that Bagehot should have underestimated both the weakness of the monarchy and its non-party character: ‘the queen must sign her own death warrant if the two Houses unanimously send it up to her’ is more piquant than profound. The distinction between the efficient and the dignified parts of the constitution, so much admired, was hardly novel, and the suggestion that the only rights the monarch had were to ‘be consulted, encourage and warn’ is too pat. But since the book became recommended reading for George V and George VI when princes, it...

Privy Council

Privy Council   Quick reference

Jonathan Bradbury

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
216 words

...Council The British monarch’s advisory group. Once a key part of executive power, it now exists as the formal machinery through which the monarch exercises prerogative powers. Its role primarily is as a dignified part of the constitution, although it retained an efficient role, for instance, in its facilitation of former polytechnics being granted university status in the early 1990s. The Privy Council is supervised by the Lord President of the Council and, whilst its membership extends to all past and present cabinet ministers and other public figures,...

Responsible government

Responsible government   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
718 words

...months without becoming a senator or member of the House of Representatives (s 64). The executive chapter of the Commonwealth Constitution was written in this ‘dignified’ rather than ‘efficient’ way—to borrow Walter Bagehot's terms from his classic exposition of The English Constitution ( 1867 )—because that was the customary British way for well‐known institutions and practices. Mixing dignified British conventional modes with written parts has created the Australian constitutional hybrid that Elaine Thompson has called Washminster . It has also...

Consul

Consul   Reference library

Sarah Bond

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...conferred no political power, but was the height of honour . The consul was chosen by the emperor ; Ausonius in the speech in which he thanked his pupil Gratian for conferring the honour upon him in 379 explains that imperial choice (helped by God) is much more efficient and dignified than the messy Republican system of public election ( Gratiarum Actio , 9–10). The names of the two consuls for a year, the Consules Ordinarii, continued to be used to mark the date in official documents. The emperor often held the position of Consul Ordinarius himself...

Bagehot, Walter

Bagehot, Walter (1826–77)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
688 words

...as a committee of the House of Commons, and inferred that it was the fusion of legislative and executive powers, and not their separation, that was the animating principle of the constitution. The Cabinet quintessentially belonged to the ‘efficient’ part of the constitution; the monarchy, famously, he assigned to the ‘dignified’ part. In The English Constitution Bagehot projected himself as the plain man of business who penetrated to the reality of institutions where philosophers and literary men were deceived by the facade. He was in fact widely read in...

Monarchy

Monarchy   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,108 words

...politics and the elevated, politically neutral role of a non-elective figure who represents the unity and dignity of the state‐a distinction Walter Bagehot depicted in his classic nineteenth-century treatise, The English Constitution , as that between the ‘dignified’ and ‘efficient’ parts of government‐although it is seldom remarked that Bagehot thought this distinction necessary only for an ignorant, unsophisticated citizenry, whose fascination for royal personages could be indulged while cabinet pursued the real business of government. A crucial...

Poirot, Hercule

Poirot, Hercule   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
758 words

...of foibles, yet today Hercule Poirot is acknowledged as second only to Sherlock Holmes in the pantheon of Great Detectives . His distinctive appearance, habits, and techniques established in Christie's first book, The Mysterious Affair at Styles ( 1920 ). Short and dignified with an egg-shaped head and waxed mustache, Poirot has an obsession for neatness, order, and method. Formerly with the Belgian police, he retired and was smuggled out of France and into England during 1916 and soon renewed his acquaintance with Captain Arthur Hastings, whom he...

cabinet

cabinet   Reference library

J. A. Cannon and Hugh Berrington

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,043 words

...have had a seat in the cabinet. The growth of cabinet committees has meant that the cabinet itself no longer has the central importance it once had. ‘Cabinet meetings’, said Nigel Lawson , former chancellor of the Exchequer, ‘are ninety per cent of the time a dignified [rather than an] efficient part of cabinet government.’ Recent discussion has emphasized the increasing power of the prime minister and the declining status of the cabinet. The argument has perhaps been overdone, but there is little doubt that during the 20th cent. the office of prime...

Nabisco

Nabisco   Reference library

Thei Zervaki

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,273 words

...with some sort of package that would preserve its crispiness. Green thought that the “word cracker had too long been associated with stale and soggy products. The word biscuit used to describe a thin, hard bread that would keep without spoilage for some time and had a more dignified status.” After receiving hundreds of name suggestions, he decided on the “Uneeda Biscuit.” Uneeda Biscuit also marked the beginning of the advertising era. In an effort to draw the attention of consumers, Green invented the most imaginative type of advertising. The portrait of a...

prime minister

prime minister   Reference library

J. A. Cannon and Hugh Berrington

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,662 words

...the power of the office was clearly established by the mid-19th cent., it retained something of its disreputable flavour and was slow to be acknowledged. But in 1865 Bagehot wrote bluntly that ‘the Queen is only at the head of the dignified part of the constitution. The prime minister is at the head of the efficient part.’ In 1878 at the Congress of Berlin , Beaconsfield ( Disraeli ) was referred to as ‘Prime Minister of Her Britannic Majesty’, and in 1905 a royal warrant gave the prime minister precedence after the archbishop of York. J. A....

Rubens, Sir Peter Paul

Rubens, Sir Peter Paul   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,598 words

...some stately aristocratic portraits ( Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria , 1606 , NG, Washington) that inspired van Dyck when he worked in the city, and in Rome he absorbed the lessons of the antique , the great masters of the Renaissance , and Annibale Carracci , basing his dignified and powerful style on these sources, but adding a distinctive energy and warmth of his own. On learning that his mother was seriously ill, Rubens returned to Antwerp in 1608 , but she died before he arrived. Italy had become his spiritual home (he usually signed himself ‘Pietro...

Rubens, Sir Peter Paul

Rubens, Sir Peter Paul   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,603 words

...some stately aristocratic portraits ( Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria , 1606 , NG, Washington) that inspired van Dyck when he worked in the city, and in Rome he absorbed the lessons of the antique , the great masters of the Renaissance , and Annibale Carracci , basing his dignified and powerful style on these sources, but adding a distinctive energy and warmth of his own. On learning that his mother was seriously ill, Rubens returned to Antwerp in 1608 , but she died before he arrived. Italy had become his spiritual home (he usually signed himself ‘Pietro...

monarchy

monarchy   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,691 words

...Success in war, on the other hand, gave the king a strong, if not impregnable, position— William I , Edward I , Edward III , Henry V . The prestige and standing of the monarchy was enhanced in a variety of ways. The coronation ceremony became more elaborate and more dignified. Some early coronations were so hasty that rehearsals could hardly have been possible. Harold was crowned the day after Edward’s death, and Henry I apologized to Anselm for his coronation three days after succeeding Rufus, explaining that ‘enemies would have risen up...

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1912–1994) – and Ethnoecology in Colombia

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1912–1994) – and Ethnoecology in Colombia   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,895 words

...“payment” in “Thought” and in action to restore ecosystem balance. Reichel-Dolmatoff underlined how the “Mama” shaman-priests guided these agricultural mountain individuals and collectivities to reach a “balanced” life within nature, and he described Kogi life as sober, dignified and respectful of the environment and communal conviviality. He studied dozens of other indigenous cultures which shared many of these features, though the struggle of the Kogi to maintain their traditional cultures he found unique. Linking his archeological, anthropological and...

religion

religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,608 words

...field for hypocritical, ignorant, venial ‘shepherds’ to prey on their semi-literate flocks. Charlotte's scorn was in part a defensive reaction on behalf of the Church of England, which retained her loyalty despite her knowledge of its faults, and which had inherited the dignified orders of service, prayers, and readings laid down in the Book of Common Prayer . Meanwhile casual and migrant workers and slum dwellers might remain untouched by religion. Disraeli, using the evidence of the 1841–2 Royal Commission for the Investigation of Employment of...

Firms, Law

Firms, Law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
5,232 words

...in 1908 , the ABA promulgated codes of ethics that reflected the culture of large urban law firms. In particular, the prohibitions on advertising and tight restrictions on contingent fees reflected the distaste of bar leaders for the more competitive and presumably less dignified practices of solo practitioners who did not enjoy a secure base of wealthy clients. Large law firms flourished as corporate business enterprises that valued their services continued to expand throughout most of the twentieth century. The growth of large firms during the...

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